St. Ignace, Michigan
These pieces of crust floated on the hot surface of the globe bumping into each other, splitting apart many times until the present continents were formed. Theory is that radioactive rays from a super nova explosion in space hit Michigan with radiation. There is, across from the Fort a quarter mile out into the Big Lake, a lighthouse, first constructed in Rumours - A Fleetwood Mac Tribute. Into this wonderful land of beauty and peace, again as in countless times before, came strangers and killed the peaceful settlers. Archived from the original on June 22,
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The woman who was held in place by the rope was lifted onto the pontoon by Cannon. Firemen and policemen tried to guide an aluminum boat more than yards downstream from the western tip of the Three Sister Islands however this was unsuccessful.
A second helicopter called to the scene when rescue teams were unable to assist those stranded. The second Bell Aerospace helicopter, piloted by William Gallagher, age 29 and co-pilot George White, age 40 dropped a line to one of the stranded air crew. The helicopter then dropped the other end of the rope to the rescue teams on shore. The boat was attached to the second line which was stretched between the shore and the stranded victims.
With several volunteers aboard the boat the boat was ferried across the rapids to the victims in a breeches buoy fashion. The boat was hand was guided to the rock. The three victims were able to climb aboard the boat and were pulled to safety over several trips.
According to my Dad he and the woman came over in the first trip of that boat, and Joe Cannon came over to land on the second trip. Owen never mentioned anyone from shore coming out to the helicopter, so I'm pretty sure it was just the folks from the craft in that boat during the two trips, no one else. Also, my dad said that the helicopter flipped upside down.
He almost drowned while attempting to release his seat belt. They weren't quick release seat belts like they are today, and with his weight hanging down on it with him upside down it was extremely difficult to get open. The three victims were taken to St. Mary's Hospital suffering from shock, minor cuts and bruises. They were later released. The sides of the gorge were walled in. Behind the walls shafts carried water down the feet to the turbines located just above the water level.
Behind these shafts and rear walls of the new plant were old cuts in the rock face which were used during the era of the belt and shaft drive technology. Over the years, water seeping behind the wall had undermined the rock face of the gorge behind the plant. On the morning of June 7th , workers noticed water seeping into the plant from the back wall. By mid afternoon, the cracks in the rear wall were widening while 40 men worked with sandbags to stem the flow of water. Six generators capable of producing , horsepower had been demolished.
The most devastating was the sudden loss of , kilowatts of power from the power grid. Suddenly a loud rumble was heard from behind the wall and the wall began to collapse. One of the workers died. Employee, Richard Draper, age 39 of Lewiston was killed. The rest escaped unscathed. The entire southern portion of the plant collapsed into the river below.
As the generators blew apart, some debris was propelled to the Canadian side of the gorge. December 1st - a U. Edward Metlot of New York City ejected from the jet before the crash and landed along the American shoreline.
July 9th - a seven year old boy named Roger Woodward became the first person to survive a plunge over the Falls without a barrel. Woodward and his 17 year old sister Deanne, both of Niagara Falls, New York set out that day on a harmless boat ride on the upper Niagara River with family friend James Honeycutt.
He had often taken the Woodward children out for a boat ride on his fourteen foot long aluminum boat with a seven and a half horsepower outboard motor.
Frank Woodward trusted Honeycutt completely. Honeycutt and the Woodward children began the boat ride about five miles upstream of the Falls where Honeycutt was living in a house trailer at the Lynch Trailer camp along the American shoreline.
Approximately one mile upstream of the Horseshoe Falls, Honeycutt began to turn the boat in the opposite direction when the boat motor malfunctioned and quit running. On examining the engine, Honeycutt discovered that the propeller pin had sheared off. Honeycutt began rowing frantically towards the shore but the current was carrying the boat ever so quickly towards the Falls.
Honeycutt ordered the Woodward children to put on their life-preservers. Honeycutt was too busy rowing to have time to put his life-preserver on. Near the Falls the waves capsized the boat separating Deanne from her brother Roger and Mr. Deanne held onto the side of the boat until a wave forced her under water. When she surfaced, she saw two men standing on the shore.
Hayes grabbed Deanne by her fingers and called for help. Both men successfully pulled Deanne from the water. Roger Woodward was in Honeycutt's arms as they approached the Horseshoe Falls.
The raging water pulled them apart as they rode over the crest of the Falls. Roger Woodward was wearing swimming trunks and a pair of running shoes. The shoes were ripped from his feet on his way down the cascade. Woodward was forced into the foot deep water at the base of the Falls but was quickly freed where he floated to the surface.
After eight minutes and three approaches to rescue Roger Woodward by using a life ring. He sustained only minor cuts and bruises. February 11th - a light airplane crashes in a field above Dufferin Islands approximately yards from the Niagara River. Four American men were killed instantly. The men, from Niagara Falls, New York had taken off at 10 a. The crash was subsequently determined to have been caused by structural failure of the main spar of the left wing.
April 24th - the Ontario Hydro icebreaker "Niagara Queen" with a crew of three men operating on the upper Niagara River in a blinding fog ran aground on a shoal near Tower Island end of the International Water Control Dam. In order to rescue the icebreaker and it's crew, a twelve passenger Sikorski helicopter was brought in to drop a lifeline to the stranded boat.
August 5th - an American sightseeing helicopter of Prior Aviation operating from Goat Island crashed at 3: The pilot and two passengers were killed.
Following the crash, the bodies of both passengers floated free from the wreckage and were swept downstream. The mangled helicopter containing the body of Horning was swept through one of the hydro control dam gates before grounding approximately yards downstream, approximately 50 feet from the Canadian shore in 7 feet of calm water. Two Bell Aerospace test pilots: Richard Carlin and Ernest Panapinto responded to an emergency call.
They were able to swim out to the wreckage and recover the body of Horning. The body of Pescatore was immediately recovered from the river along the shoreline by Ontario Hydro employees. The body of Episcopo was recovered several days later at the base of the Horseshoe Falls. Witnesses reported that the doomed helicopter was only feet above the surface of the Niagara River when its engine quit functioning. Witnesses saw Horning who appeared to be struggling to control the helicopter while the passengers appeared to be bracing themselves for a crash-landing.
Edward Horning was an experienced pilot with over 2, hours flying time as a pilot in the U. July 26th - at The raft overturned throwing the eight people into the water.
The Whirlpool Rapids attains a speed of approximately thirty miles per hour. All passengers and crew were wearing life preservers were whisked into the Whirlpool at the end of the rapids where they were rescued by a second raft which was followed the first through the rapids.
Both rafts had been outfitted with 25 horsepower outboard motors but were no match for the mighty rapids. Trial runs through the rapids on May 23rd and May 25th satisfied the owners that the motors had sufficient power to control the raft. The boat drifted towards the Horseshoe Falls. The three adults climbed out of the boat and stood in the shallow rapids as the boat continued over the Falls.
The adult female was holding an infant in her arms. They remained stranded until help arrived. In an attempt to effect a rescue, a sightseeing helicopter piloted by Dale Hartman and carrying two police officers: As the helicopter hovered above those stranded, the policemen crawled out of the cockpit onto the landing skids in an attempt to effect the rescue.
One of the stranded men grabbed onto one of the struts causing the helicopter to tilt onto its side allowing the main rotor to strike the water. The helicopter burst into flames.
Miraculously no one was seriously injured. Sergeant Lyse Newberry, Lieutenant Joseph DeMarco and Officer Anthony Larratta in a second rescue attempt, piloted a police boat into the rapids but immediately became stranded when the propeller of their outboard motor broke. Larratta and DeMarco jumped out of the boat and swam through the strong current to the stranded helicopter.
Sergeant Newberry was swept down river in the boat to within one thousand feet of the brink of the Falls before jumping for his life. Newberry was able to grab a hold of a tree extending from Solon Island. Other officers forming a human chain pulled him to shore. Nearly two and a half hours after being stranded, the nine stranded people were able to walk to shore after safety ropes were sent to them by using a breeches buoy type gun. Ultimately everyone was rescued with little or no injury. August 29th - a thirty-seven foot long air inflated rubber and nylon raft belonging to Niagara Gorge River Trips Inc.
Three passengers died from drowning. Twenty-six survived this ordeal. The accident occurred during the 11th trial run of this raft tour through the Niagara River rapids. The raft had departed from the Maid of the Mist dock at the base of the Prospect Point Tower and was about two mile downstream of a five mile route to Lewiston, New York. The three dead persons were identified as: Their dances tell stories.
Most of our ancestors also were in tribes and lived like the Indians did. There are interesting books about their way of life in the Library. You can still visit a real Indian pow-wow, see their dances and talk to real Indians. What did we learn from the Indians? First we learned from them where things were like the lakes, streams and other resources. Then we learned the use of corn, potatoes, tobacco, squash, beans, pumpkins, melons, maple sap, maple sugar, tobacco and uses for many other native plants.
Corn was unknown to Europeans and was a lifesaver food crop as wheat did not do well until after the ground had been tilled several times. We learned how to make birch bark canoes, shelters, hunting and fishing techniques and that people can live off of the land without modern conveniences. We learned that primitive man can be very intelligent very kind, or very cruel. The Indians also introduced Europeans to their sacred plant tobacco. What did the Indians learn from the White Man? They learned to use European tools, clothes and culture.
They learned that the white man would take over their land by moving in, making treaties with promises then breaking those promises. The Indians were primitive people with no concept of land ownership. Michigan belonged to everyone and each was to take from it only what they needed. The land belonged to all and was for the use of all. Before the white man came all tribes were virtually self-reliant. Willis F Dunbar 31 The Indians were promised lands by sacred treaty then the white man would come in with armies and modern weapons and kill or remove the Indians from the land that was already by law given to the Indians.
And Europeans brought diseases such as measles, smallpox and tuberculosis to which the Indians had no resistance at all, So thousands died. Another quirk was that the Indians for the most part adopted and used European items.
They liked metal tools because they were more efficient. Metal pots were superior than earthen pots. Guns were more effective for hunting and killing enemies. Non Indian clothing and blankets were better and more comfortable.
The Indians adopted white man's items and tools and within a generation seemed to forget how to be self sufficient.
By the mid s Michigan Indians were almost dependent upon Europeans trade goods. Ziewacz 8 By the s most Indian bands were more driven to get furs than to hunt or raise crops for their own families. The introduction of whiskey to Indian culture resulted in many Indians selling personal and family possessions and neglecting getting food for themselves and their families.
That and with the white-induced diseases accounted for gradual Indian population decline to around 8, by Ziewacz 9 Of course some of this was due to warfare. The Indians learned that the white man was not looking out for there welfare rather was cheating them in every way possible. The Indians were utterly unable to control their desire for rum, brandy, or whiskey once they had had a taste of it, and untold numbers were completely debauched by its use.
The Indians became pawns in the white-man's wars. To the early pioneers the Indians were mostly deadly enemy. Some Indians such as the Delawares were Christians and were very friendly and kind. Others like the roving bands of paid scalpers hired by the English would butcher an entire family just for the scalps. There was much needless violence practiced by the English, French, American settlers and Indians.
We must learn that there are better ways to settle disputes than brute force. Who were the first Europeans in the area? We simply have no records of the Vikings coming here although they preceded Columbus to America. Following this fur traders and adventurers explored the Michigan region. They made friends with the Indians by giving them gifts.
They traveled far and wide in Michigan and may have even explored the Huron River later became the Clinton. But they did not publish their notes if they even took any because this was secret state business. This was New France and their job was to obtain furs. It is almost certain that Cadillac was not the first European in the area but no records have come to light with any actual names.
What is important is that they respected the Indians and found a way to trade with them peacefully. They learned the languages and often married into the culture. The Indians were living in the stone age which required intensive laborious work to hunt and just live. The Indians began acquiring metal tools, clothes, blankets and learning the ways of the Europeans.
The Indians realized that a metal knife required a lot less work to use than a stone one. Soon the Indians were traded guns which were much more effective for hunting and against enemies. The Indians also learned to beg, bargain and trade. They were told that settlers would take their lands and force them out. The Indians discovered this was true from other tribes further east who had been displaced. So who the actual first foreigners were doesn't matter. The Europeans who counted were the French who had great influence on the Indians and their culture.
The French were there to make money and to save souls. Several French missionaries were sent to Michigan. French explorers explored Michigan to an extent that when La Salle left Michigan for the last time in the French were well acquainted with most of Michigan. Our area was abounding in wildlife. Our area was also home to some ancient animals such as the American mastodon, saber toothed cats, short legged rhinoceros, long horned bison, giant ground sloth, and an early camel all millions of years ago.
On July 24, , Antoine De La Mothe Cadillac and his command of about one hundred men, which included his nine-year-old son Antoine, landed at the foot of a thirty-foot cliff along the Detroit River. Cadillac built here Fort Pontchartrain du De Troit the straits. This later became the city of Detroit. Madame Cadillac, several months later, traveled one thousand miles by canoe to join her husband, becoming the first European woman in Michigan.
Cadillac left Detroit in The Michigan Historical library states that his settlement had become home to several thousand Native Americans, but only a handful of French Canadians.
What was the area like in ? What did Cadillac find? In Cadillac wrote that there were forests of full grown trees or walnut, white oak, red oak, ash, pine, whitewood, cottonwood, straight as arrows with no knots and without branches except at the very top. Here the cautious turkey calls and conducts her numerous brood to gather the grapes.
Luxuriant grass which fatten woolly buffaloes of magnificent size. Silas Farmer also states that other early accounts tell of elk, moose, wolves, bears, rabbits, otters, lynxes, wildcats, beavers, musk-rats, meadow larks, bobolinks, robins, and humming birds. They were so numerous that hundreds could easily be killed with a walking stick. Michigan is indeed a water wonder land with the most fresh water in the world.
French Rule The arrival of the Europeans. At first most were from France but also from other countries. They discovered a wilderness covered with huge trees, white pines over five feet in diameter at the base and feet tall, abundant wildlife such as beaver, lakes and streams with fish. In , the legendary Jesuit missionary and explorer Fr.
Jacques Marquette named this settlement Sault Ste. According to Michigan History magazine http: Tribes living in present-day Michigan included the Ojibway, the Odawa and the Potawatomi. Everyone living in an Indian village worked. When they did fight, it was because another group had moved too close to their territory.
They also fought to avenge a wrong done to one of them by someone from another village or tribe. The French gave the Indians beads, blankets, tomahawks, copper kettles, and guns. The French did everything they could to settle Canada. They they encouraged the new settlers to marry and have large families. Talon also introduced new crops such as flax and hemp and imported quality livestock. In the Iroquois attacked the village of La Chine and massacred French villagers.
The King of France sent in troops but European troops were unskilled in fighting Indians. Then the French sent voyagers and Indians to attack English settlements. In one attack against English settlers at Schenectady sixty residents perished.
Ziewacz 35 These needless cruel attacks would spread later to settlers in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana and further south. Cadillac had settled in in Detroit in He rented land to Frenchmen for money.
He turned the whole area into a wealth building machine for himself. He encouraged Indians to camp near the fort and trade there. During trading season as many as 5, Indians and hundreds of coureurs de bois met in Detoit. Cadillac made a small fortune from this fur trade. Willis F Dunbar 80 Because the Jesuits were trying to Christianize the Indians they were not in favor of killing, scalping and moral debauchery caused by fire water.
To celebrate an Ottawa and Potawatomi foray into the Saginaw region against Iroquois hunters, which netted thirty scalps and as many prisoners, Cadillac furnished the victorious Indians, on their return, with enough brandy so that two hundred of them staged an all-night orgy. Willis F Dunbar 80 Cadillac commanded Detroit for nine years.
He made many enemies and extracted the last penny possible from the settlers. Even his boss Count Pontchartrain reprimanded him and told him that he was too greedy. Willis F Dunbar 85 Cadillac had hoped to make a permanent settlement that would grow in population thru intermarriage with Indians.
Ziewacz 37 He might have succeeded if he weren't so greedy and obnoxious which got him transferred to Mobile in In a priest was shot by an Ottawa Indian. The population of Detroit remained fairly small. In it only has 63 permanent residents , acres in cultivation. Ziewacz 38 The French settlers were very laid back and young French men preferred the quick profits of the fur trade to hard toil of humble farmers.
Ziewacz 38 The big picture of course was that the French preferred to preserve the wilderness for the fur trade rather than make big settlements.
So by the French even though they claimed all of Canada only had about 50, population compared to the English holdings to the south east with a population of 1.
Since Europe was largely depleted of fur bearing animals there was a big demand for furs in Europe. The pelts that were shipped to Europe included Beaver, bear, elk, deer, martin, raccoon, mink, muskrat, opossum, lynx, wolf, and fox. Willis F Dunbar 90 The French fur traders were adventurous young men who lived among the Indians and took Indian wives. It is estimated that there were at least of them. Others were voyageurs who were colorful characters who paddled hundreds of miles up swift streams, carrying canoes on their backs singing as they went.
Willis F Dunbar 92 They traded bright-colored beads, cloth, shawls, handkerchiefs, ribbons, sleigh bells, knives, jew's harps, shot, powder, tobacco, blankets, and brandy. They often cheated the Indians. Willis F Dunbar 92 They ate corn boiled in strong lye, the hulls removed, and the kernels washed and dried and bear or other meat and pork or fat.
By nearly Indians from many tribes were visiting near the area of the Fort at Detroit trying to get the French to give them things. This meant that they were hunting in Warren.
In the past the French had given lots of gifts to the Indians. But the King of France had ordered an end to buying furs and an end to the giving of gifts. This angered the Indians and led to the murders of many French fur traders. Soon the tribes were fighting amongst themselves for territory. In allied Indians massacred about Fox Indians. Into this wonderful land of beauty and peace, again as in countless times before, came strangers and killed the peaceful settlers. Men, women and children were needlessly massacred.
Silas points out that as early as the French outfitted war excursion parties. These killed scalped, tortured any settler or anyone that they did not like. They also took many women and children as slaves. On August 31, a settler named Martineau wandered a little to far from the fort and was scalped by four Indians. Colonel George Washington in on his return trip from interviewing the French commandant was himself narrowly escaped being massacred by the Indians.
French residents of Detroit in stated that Iroquois actually ate the flesh of persons slain in battle. Farmer p History records many incidents of this.
In November of a party of three hundred Canadians and Indians fell upon the German settlers killed forty took one hundred and fifty captives and carried off an immense quantity of provisions and livestock. They wanted power wealth and comfort for themselves.
They did not care about our ancestors or their subjects. Back in the past there were over 10, languages. Now there are still over a thousand languages spoken around the world and English is understood by only about ten percent of all humans.
Humans need to understand each other especially in emergencies. Today we still have Americans and thousands of other humans dying around the world in senseless and needless violence often set off by communication failure.
This failure is due to not being able to understand the hundreds of languages spoken in the world and due to the absurd notion that most people in the world are going to learn English. So we need an easy to learn international vocabulary.
There is one which has been proved successful called Esperanto. No it is not Spanish, rather an international easy to learn vocabulary. There were many French settlers around Detroit and northward mostly along the banks of the Detroit River and lake St Clair. They were mostly a happy peaceful lot. Reports from Detroit were that it was a fairly happy place where almost everyone were friends.
Any trouble was dealt with quickly by the military stationed there. But the Indians continually begged for things. Between and France and Great Britain fought four wars. The French and Indian War went from was really the struggle between the French and the British for domination of North America. The British defeated the French and took control of Canada, Michigan and the fur trade.
About years of French rule came to an end in By the British colonies had 1. In British General Braddock with1, soldiers began to attack the French and their Indian allies. Ziewacz 40 The general had miles to go thru the woods so he decided to build a road. This process was noisy and slow and alerted the enemy who snuck up on his tired soldiers at dawn and killed Braddock and of his soldiers. At that time there were houses and 2, inhabitants. The English were also after furs and wanted to own North America.
The British did not treat the Indians as well as the French did. They did not give out as many gifts and they set the Indian tribes against each other and against American settlers. The Indians were duped by Europeans into killing one another and killing Europeans and later killing American settlers. In general the Indians were cheated out of their lands, displaced sometimes murdered by Europeans and Americans and sometimes they retaliated. A few of their descendants still live in Macomb County.
The Bloody British used all the means they could to get the Indians to kill settlers. Farmer , The British led raiding parties of Indians to kill settlers and then paid them for the scalps. The British flag flew over Michigan for thirty-six years from and off an on until after the war of and it took a few years after that. Then the British still had major control over some Indians which caused some settlers to be killed up to So if one is counting years that the British had major influence in the Michigan area the total would probably be around seventy years of bloody British sponsored killings.
Note Henry Hamilton the hair buyer was the British Lieutenant Governor of Detroit in This position was higher than simply the post commander. The above men were actually absolute dictators. De Peyster hanged a woman. Hit a person with his cane and had a person trampled. In Farmer Hamilton hanged people in We in our time have rule by law.
They had rule by brute force. When word of the American Revolution came in most of the French settlers were more sympathetic to the Americans than to the British. The British did not want American settlers coming into the area so they had them killed.
To discourage settlers, rumors were spread that the Warren area was as an impassable swamp. The British gave bands of Indians guns, gun powder, tomahawks and scalping knives. The British actually bought scalps and led raiding parties against settlers, and any Indian family not aligned with them. Again it was rule by brute force rather than rule by law. Hundreds of Michigan settlers and Indians were brutally tortured and scalped including children.
Settlers in the Macomb county area did not escape this terrible fate. In late April Ottawa war chief Pontiac called a grand council of the tribes in the vicinity of Detroit and urged them to join him in an attack upon the British fort. Pontiac proposed a plan to capture Fort Detroit.
On the morning of May 7, fifty warriors accompanied him to the fort, each carrying a concealed tomahawk or knife. Pontiac carried a green-and-white wampum belt shells embroidered into a belt. Once inside the fort, he would signal the attack by turning the belt over. Pontiac and his men left the fort. The next day the Indians returned and asked to be allowed into the fort.
Pontiac then placed Detroit under siege. Several other British forts fell. If there were any American settlers in Warren they were probably butchered. An Indian woman saved the fort at Detroit. She found out that they were going to massacre the people in the fort.
So she went to see the fort commander and informed him of the plot. Pontiac found out about it and repeatedly beat her to near death. Although there was no fighting in Michigan during the American Revolution except for the killing of settlers, Detroit was the center of British power in the west.
Word of the American Revolution reached the frontier of which the Detroit area was a part. The British told the Indians that the American settlers would be taking their land. The British gave bands of Indians guns, powder, tomahawks and scalping knives. Raids on American settlements in the east were organized from Detroit.
Thousands of American settlers died because of the raiders. On May 9 without provocation an old woman and her two sons were murdered and scalped.
On Belle Isle a settler by the name of Mr Fisher and his wife were also murdered and their two children taken never to be seen again. This happened where the Scott memorial is now n Belle Isle. Over English traders were murdered that summer. The Indians also cruelly tortured many people. Legend is that the Red Run River got its name from the red color of the water from the butchery of Chief Pontiac's warriors killing others at the banks of the river.
Still others claim color was from cranberries. Truth is we don't know. Englishmen sometimes led the Indians on raids on American settlers. Ferris Lewis in his book My State and Its Story states "So murderous were these raids that the year is known in American History as the year of the three bloody sevens. Mutilated bodies with scalps gone, smoldering ashes of what was once a settler's cabin on the frontier, tales of horror and massacre; these marked the trail of the Indian raiders.
Hundreds of settlers thus perished before the Indians' guns and tomahawks. Why did the Indians gather scalps? Who paid them for the scalps and provided this primitive people with scalping knives? Ferris Lewis p The Treaty of Paris in , obligated the British leave Detroit it took them thirteen years and some naval battle losses before they left. British rule which began in ended by They left a bloody 55 year legacy.
They earned the title Bloody British. There were small bands of Indians that lived just outside of the fort at Detroit from For the most part they were friendly. But hey begged a lot. The following is paraphrased from an article on the Hair Buyer which does not quote the source appears at http: Henry Hamilton was he British Lieutenant Governor of Detroit in who was widely known on the frontier as the hair Buyer. He was the power behind deadly Indian raids to American settlements.
He bought American scalps from these raids. The British had captured Vincennes which was at that time more or less the capital of the region. George Rogers Clark felt that his small force of Kentucky riflemen was no match against the British unless he could mount a surprise attack.
In the middle of winter he and his men set out on February 6 to go overland. Clark's men struggled, waded thru wet mud, forded wet areas where they had to break the ice. They had insufficient clothing and here half starving. The Indians were in possession of scalps. They were tied to a fence and killed in view of the British defenders of the fort. Clark immediately had Hamilton clamped in irons.
There was great hatred for Hamilton. Even Thomas Jefferson, ordered him shackled in irons and thrown into a dungeon. The net effect was to greatly weaken the British power and their influence over the Indians. To weaken the Indians further Clark sent agents to Indian tribes causing several tribes to drop hostilities. Daniel Boone was held by Hamilton in Detroit he was treated with unusual courtesy.
When Hamilton was imprisoned by Jefferson, Boone made a visit to see him. In Hamilton was released in a prisoner exchange. As the Indians gradually became aware that the French and British were growing weaker and that the Americans were growing stronger they continued to fight.
General Josiah Harnar moved so slowly that the Indians easily could keep track of him and when the time was right attack. In October a detachment was ambushed and men killed. When his tired army reached the Maumee River and pitched their tents for the night they did not post adequate guards.
The camp was quietly surrounded, then furiously attacked. Leaving dead and wounded behind. After this victory the Indians fell mercilessly on settlers who were massacred along with their wives and children. Wayne took his army to the same location where St Clair's army was defeated.
The Indians under Chief Little Turtle with braves was confident that they would have a repeat victory attacked in earnest but this time the troops were ready and defeated the Indians. Willis F Dunbar Wayne reported that he had proof that the British were behind the attack and supplied them with supplies and ammunition. In a battle between Wayne's army and a large Indian force under Tecumseh a young Shawnee warrior took place in a place called Fallen Timbers. Wayne was completely victorious. This victory broke the back of the Indian resistance.
The Indians realizing that their cause was useless settled for as much as they could get in goods by ceding large areas of land to the Americans in the Treaty of Greenville in Detroit had about inhabitants in The Jay treaty of was signed in Europe and the British agreed to abandon its forts by June 1 It contained mostly French inhabitants who spoke French.
The merchants and traders were mainly English and Scotch. There were a few Americans and both Indian and Negro slaves. Those who held slaves were allowed to keep them when the Americans took over as they were considered property. Within it were barracks for the troops, and shops for the carpenter, baker and armorer.
Willis F Dunbar Dunbar states that below the fort was the town which consisted of about a hundred mostly log houses. Only a few were frame dwellings. In the river were sloops, schooners, canoes and other kinds of craft. In the town were also shops and taverns. The whole river had ribbon farms on both sides.
Willis F Dunbar Laws were enforced by justices who defined crimes and punishments. Flogging, fines and standing in the stocks were the standard punishments.
Willis F Dunbar Warren was no-man's land in the wilderness. What the settlers had to say about the Indians. Here is what one settler reported about the Indians: The women cultivated Indian corn, beans, peas, squashes and melons. The Indians danced, and play games such as la crosse. In summer most of the men went naked except for a breech cloth and moccasins. Some wear fancy clothes with lots of vermillion and buffalo hide robes in the winter.
They often play village against village with heavy betting. Regarding the Hurons Silas quotes a French memoir. They are the most industrious nation they can be seen the scarcely dance are a always at work raise a very large amount of Indian corn, peas, beans, some grow wheat but they construct their huts entirely of bark.
Their fort is strongly encircled with pickets and bastions well redoubled and have strong gates. They are the most faithful nation to the French and most expert hunters we have.
Their cabins are divided into sleeping compartments which contain their misirague and are very clean. They are the bravest of all nations and possess considerable talent. They are well clad. Some of them wear close overcoats the men are always hunting summer and winter and the women work.
When they go hunting in the fall a goodly number remain to guard their fort. The old women and through out the winter the other women who remain gather wood in large quantity. The soil is very fertile. Indian corn grows there to the height of ten to twelve feet. Their fields are very clean and very extensive.
Not the smallest weed is to be seen in them. They were ministered to by the Moravian missionaries. They wanted to provide their good neighbors and themselves with a road that could get their corn to the mill in Detroit. A road was needed because the ground was often too muddy for wagons. By this group of surviving, Moravian Christian Indians had built the first inland road in Michigan in order to carry their wheat to the mill on Tremble Creek. It ran 23 and one half miles from what is now Southwest Mt.
What a wonderful legacy they left to our American pioneers after their tribe had been brutally massacred by the Americans. Oh, their reward was to be forced off of their settlement again. The first settlers may have followed this plank road that the Peaceful Indians had built along the Red Run Creek to a higher spot near what is now Mound Road. Some Indians were very trustworthy and had accounts with local merchants.
In there were probably 40, Indians in the State of Michigan. By 30, and by only 10, Day after day for a month the prisoners were brought in and with the characteristic sympathy of their sex, the women left ordinary duties undone that they might watch at their doors to bargain for the ransom and relief of the sick and wounded. The only question with the Indians seemed to be, whether they could get more goods for a live captive than for a fresh scalp.
Household valuables, clothing, shawls, and blankets from the beds, were given in exchange for the captives. Even though treaties were signed by , the British still tried to maintain their power and influence with the Indians. This embolded the Indians and they became more hostile killing many Americans.
This led to the US Government and groups forming armies to kill the Indians. Sometimes the Indians won. Farmer p Not all Indians agreed with treaties that cheated them out of their lands and they continued to fight when ever and where ever they could often killing innocent settlers.
Having had thousands of settlers massacred, the Americans went on the attack. They raised militias and armies. American settlers often cruelly attacked innocent and harmless Indians such as the Moravians who were gentle, and peace loving.
General George Rogers Clark and about five hundred frontiersmen led raids against the Indians and the French. Their call was that the only good Indian was a dead Indian. On July 11, , the American flag was raised over Detroit. The Treaty of Paris officially ended the American War for Independence, but England refused to leave the forts in the Northwest Territory; also she seized American ships, forcing American sailors to serve in England's war against France.
The British still wanted to own North America. They also wanted to control the seas. The British captured over American ships and kidnapped over 10, Americans. They also tried to stop Americans from trading around the world. They fired on American ships. This led to the US to declaring war on the British. Berklee A Cappella Showcase. Berklee Concert Jazz Orchestra.
Berlin Philharmonic Wind Quintet. Best of Sacramento Stand-Up Showcase. Bethel Music Heaven Come Conference. Big Head Todd and The Monsters. Blake Gardner and The Farmers.
Bless The Rains - Toto Tribute. Blink Fest - Blink Tribute. Blockbuster All-Orchestral Season Finale. Boots and Hearts Music Festival. Boston Calling Music Festival. Boston Pops Esplanade Orchestra. Bowie Live - Tribute to David Bowie. BowieLive - David Bowie Tribute.
The Ultimate David Bowie Tribute. Brahms Piano Concerto No. Brain Damage - Pink Floyd Tribute. Brass Tracks - Tribute To Chicago. Brass, Organ, Winds and Percussion. Britain's Finest Beatles Tribute. Bugs Bunny at the Symphony II. Cal State Northridge Jazz Band. Caldwell Traditional Musicians Showcase. Candy Land Halloween Extravaganza. Caravanserai - Santana Tribute. Nicki Minaj Tribute Night. Carrie Nation and The Speakeasy.
Chad Dukes Veterans Day Jamboree. Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center. Chamber Music Society of St. Chamber Orchestra of New York. Chamber Orchestra of The Triangle. Charles Phoenix Retro Holiday Jubilee. Charlie Faye and The Fayettes. Chicago Cabaret Professionals Annual Gala. Chicago Symphony Orchestra Brass. Chinese New Year Celebration.
Choral Arts Society Of Washington. Chris Macdonald's Memories of Elvis. Christmas From A Celtic Table. Christmas With The Symphony.
Christopher Houlihan Organ Concert. Civic Symphony of Green Bay. Classic Albums Live Tribute Show. Classic Albums Live Tribute Show: Elton John's Greatest Hits.
Fleetwood Mac - Rumours. Led Zeppelin - Houses of The Holy. Led Zeppelin - Led Zeppelin I. Prince - Purple Rain. Queen - A Night at the Opera. Supertramp - Breakfast In America. Supertramp - Crime Of The Century. The Band - Last Waltz. The Beatles - Abbey Road. The Beatles - Help.
The Beatles - The White Album. The Doors - L. The Eagles - Hotel California. The Eagles - Their Greatest Hits.
Classic Lightfoot - Gordon Lightfoot Tribute. Classical Blast - Bach to Rock. The Music of The Carpenters. Cody Canada and The Departed. Colorado Hardcore Halloween Party. Comedy Palace Comedy Showcase. Commercial Music Ensemble Recital. Country Crossings Music Festival. Cowboys of Kennesaw House Band Reunites.
Crazy Babies - Ozzy Osbourne Tribute. Creatures of the Night: A Queer Halloween Dance Party. Cyro Baptista's Vira Loucos. Czech National Symphony Orchestra. Pel and Strange Attractors. Dallas Symphony Christmas Pops. Damnit - A Tribute To Blink Dani Bell and The Tarantist. Danny Carmo's Mathematical Mysteries.
Dark Desert Eagles - Eagles Tribute. Darling Nikki - A Tribute to Prince. Davey Muise and the Sons Of Zero. David Caserta's Haunted Illusions. David Rosales and His Band of Scoundrels. Davidson College Holiday Gala. Day Tripper - The Beatles Experience. Dead Affect - Grateful Dead Tribute. A Salute To Dean Martin. Decades Collide - 80's vs. Delta Omicron Fall Musicale. Dennis Quaid and The Sharks. Diamond Dave - Tribute to Neil Diamond. Diary of a Worm, a Spider and a Fly. Dimenation - Pantera Tribute.
Ding Dong's Character Circus. Dirty Rotten Scoundrels' Jukebox Jamboree. Disney's The Nightmare Before Christmas. The Music From Final Fantasy. Distinguished Concerts Singers International. Django a Gogo Music Festival. Doyle Wolfgang von Frankenstein.
Duel of The Decades 80s vs. Duluth Superior Symphony Orchestra. Dvorak's New World Symphony. Dweezil Zappa Guitar Masterclass. The Extra-Terrestrial Live in Concert. Eaglemania - Tribute To The Eagles. Echoes of Pompeii - Pink Floyd Tribute. Eighties Mayhem Halloween Dance Party. Ellis Dyson and The Shambles.
Elton Dan and the Rocket Band. Elvis Tribute Artist Spectacular. Epic Evolve - The Decades Show. Eric Burdon and The Animals. Ernie Haase and The Signature Sound. Erotic City - Prince Tribute.
Essentially Ellington Jazz Festival. Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir. Evan Christopher's Clarinet Road. Two Generations of Chinese Women Composers. Fabulous Armadillos - Eagles Tribute.
Fall Mitten State Music Concert. Fall Out Boy vs. At The Disco Tribute Night. Festival Chamber Music Concert Series. Flannel Fest - 90's Grunge Tribute Show. Florida Blue Battle of The Bands. Floyd - A Pink Floyd Tribute. Formidable - The Aznavour Tribute. Fort Worth Symphony Orchestra. Franck's Symphony in D Minor.
Frank Carillo and the Bandoleros. Free Cake For Every Creature. Free Fallin - Tom Petty Tribute. Freedom - George Michael Tribute. From Shtetl to Stage: A Celebration of Yiddish Music and Culture. Game of Thrones Live Concert Experience. George Thorogood and The Destroyers. Georgia Mountain String Band. Gershwin Piano Concerto in F. Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue. Grand Ole Opry Birthday Bash. Grand Ole Opry Birthday Concert. Grand Royale - Beastie Boys Tribute. Gratefully Yours - Grateful Dead Tribute.
Gretchen Rhodes - Dave Mason Tribute. Halloween Spooktacular Dance Party. Halloween Tricks and Treats. Hampton Roads Soul Music Festival. Second Annual Sinatra Celebration. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets.