Culture of Mexico
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This page was last edited on 10 August , at Colorfully embroidered cotton garments, cotton or wool shawls and outer garments, and colorful baskets and rugs are seen everywhere. Mexico is also known for its pre-Columbian architecture , especially for public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures. Following the conquest, the first artistic efforts were directed at evangelization and the related task of building churches.
The Spanish initially co-opted many indigenous stonemasons and sculptors to build churches, monuments and other religious art, such as altars.
The prevailing style during this era was Baroque. In the period from independence to the early 20th century, Mexican fine arts continued to be largely influenced by European traditions. After the Mexican Revolution , a new generation of Mexican artists led a vibrant national movement that incorporated political, historic and folk themes in their work.
Their grand murals often displayed on public buildings, promoted social ideals. Rufino Tamayo and Frida Kahlo produced more personal works with abstract elements. Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literature of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica. The most well known prehispanic poet is Netzahualcoyotl. Modern Mexican literature is influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica. Mexico is the most populous Spanish -speaking country in the world.
The government recognizes 62 indigenous Amerindian languages as national languages. For instance, the words tomato, chocolate, coyote , and avocado are Nahuatl in origin. Mesoamerican architecture in Mexico is best known for its public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures, several of which are the largest monuments in the world.
Architect Frank Lloyd Wright is reputed to have declared the Puuc -style architecture of the Maya as the best in the Western Hemisphere. The New Spanish Baroque dominated in early colonial Mexico. During the late 17th century to , one of Mexico's most popular architectural styles was Mexican Churrigueresque , which combined Amerindian and Moorish decorative influences.
The Academy of San Carlos , founded in , was the first major art academy in the Americas. The academy promoted Neoclassicism , focusing on Greek and Roman art and architecture. His architectural legacy lies in the redesigning of the Castillo de Chapultepec and creating the Paseo de la Reforma.
This intervention, financed largely by France, was brief, but it began a period of French influence in architecture and culture. The style was emphasized during the presidency of Porfirio Diaz who was a pronounced francophile.
Notable works from the Porfiriato include the Palacio de Correos and a large network of railways. After the Mexican Revolution in , idealization of the indigenous and the traditional symbolized attempts to reach into the past and retrieve what had been lost in the race toward modernization.
Enrique Norten , the founder of TEN Arquitectos, has been awarded several honors for his work in modern architecture. His work expresses a modernity that reinforces the government's desire to present a new image of Mexico as an industrialized country with a global presence.
The history of Mexican cinema dates to the beginning of the 20th century when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented historical events — most particularly the Mexican Revolution. The Golden Age of Mexican cinema is the name given to the period between and , where the quality and economic success of the cinema of Mexico reached its peak.
Mexicans celebrate their Independence from Spain on September 16, and other holidays with festivals known as "Fiestas". Many Mexican cities, towns, and villages hold a yearly festival to commemorate their local patron saints. During these festivities, the people pray and burn candles to honor their saints in churches decorated with flowers and colorful utensils.
They also hold large parades, fireworks, dance competitions, beauty pageant contest, party and buy refreshments in the marketplaces and public squares. In the smaller towns and villages, soccer, and boxing are also celebrated during the festivities.
It honors the Virgin of Guadalupe, the patron saint of Mexico, which is celebrated on December In the last decade, all the celebrations happening from mid-December to the beginning of January have been linked together in what has been called the Guadalupe-Reyes Marathon.
Epiphany on the evening of January 5 marks the Twelfth Night of Christmas and is when the figurines of the three wise men are added to the nativity scene. Traditionally in Mexico, as with many other Latin American countries, Santa Claus doesn't hold the cachet that he does in the United States. Rather, it is the three wise men who are the bearers of gifts, who leave presents in or near the shoes of small children.
The Day of the Dead incorporates pre-Columbian beliefs with Christian elements. The holiday focuses on gatherings of family and friends to pray for and remember friends and family members who have died.
There is an idea behind this day that suggests the living must attend to the dead so that the dead will protect the living.