The principles established on the battlefield of Adwa must be understood and embraced for Africa to remain centered in its own histories, cultures and socioeconomic development. Latin music often changes rhythm throughout one song, unlike American music. It is true that she favored her relatives to be close to power. In March , Franprix announced plan to supply its 80 stores in central Paris with tonnes of goods a day via the Marne and Seine Rivers, thereby shortening delivery times and reducing the environmental impact. Solomon said while Lakatch boiled coffee in a pot placed on charcoal in the background. Why Not Return It? Side Widget Area Click here to assign widgets to this area.

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Salsa, Merengue, Reggaeton, and Bachata. A symphony of all afro-Caribbean rhythms: Like much of the greatest popular music, the creative fire was lit when Africa met the cultural cauldron of the New World. For salsa it began in Cuba in the s. One part Yoruba drumming, another part call response vocals, it was diced with the music of local, indigenous people. Then, with heaping measures of musical Spain, France and the country-dances of England, the son was formed.

And it was very tasty indeed. But with the varied ingredients in place, a transformation took place not in the Caribbean but on the street of New York and increasingly in Miami. It was there than Puerto Ricans and Cubans had come to settle as a result of the joint upheavals of poverty in the former and isolation due to the revolution in the latter. The son turned ready to serve salsa when North American jazz stirred up this sauce.

Puerto Rican and later South American elements were also introduced. Salsa rhythms are based on Afro-Cuban dances such as the bolero, cha cha cha, guaguanco, guaracha, mambo and son montuno.

Each piece of music has three sections: As it is called, the faster and fantastic Colombian salsa music, where the greatest salsomanos meet every December for the international Salsa Festival in the city of Cali. Colombian bands as Grupo Niche and Joe Arroyo are very popular around the world. Make sure you have strong basics in any dance you are learning before moving up a level or learning new patterns. We all started at the beginning and repeated the first level a few times before moving up and sometimes as intermediate and advanced dancers its a good idea to refresh our memories by taking a basic class again as a reminder of a few things we have forgotten about.

Try never to refuse a dance with someone who is asking you. This tip is for the ladies and the gentlemen, and a reminder to the advanced dancers as well. This is how we learn to be better dancers by dancing with lots of different partners and dancers of all levels.

It is a dance for two or more couples, with one leader who calls out different movements or steps. When there are more than two couples the dance is done in Rueda circle shape. Some of them are: Some moves are invented locally and reflect cultural reality.

The name, Rueda de Casino has its own history. After , Gambling Casinos were closed and some of them reopened as dancing halls. At the beginning, people kept calling the dancing halls casinos and, as a result the type of dance done there was called Casino. Some people say that the name of Rueda came from other stories. Regardless of where the name originated, the style of dance came to be part of the Cuban identity.

Merengue is a rhythmic dance hot and??? This style of dance originates in the Dominican Republic in In its traditional form merengue is played on accordion, saxophone, box bass with metal plucked keys, a guayano or guira a metal scraper transformed from a kitchen implement , and a two ended tambora drum. This dance originated in Dominican Republic in Dictionaries of Latin American Spanish define the term bachata as juerga, jolgorio, or parranda, all of which denote fun, merriment, a good time, or a spree, but in the Dominican Republic, in addition to the emotional quality of fun and enjoyment suggested by the dictionary definition, it referred specifically to get-togethers that included music, drink, and food.

Salsa represents a mix of Latin musical genres, but its primary component is Cuban dance music. There, Spanish and Afro-Cuban musical elements were combined, both in terms of rhythm and the instruments used. By mid-century, this music came to Havana where foreign influences were absorbed, particularly American jazz and popular music heard on the radio.

By the end of the ls, many Cuban and Puerto Rican people including musicians had settled in the U. This created the environment where salsa music completed its development. Many bands were formed; immigrants continued to make Afro-Caribbean music, but they adapted the sound to their new world. They were influenced especially by American jazz. Gradually in the 50s and 60s, salsa as we know it today was emerging.

The rise of salsa music is also tied closely to Fania Records which was founded in by the musician Johnny Pacheco and an Italian-American divorce lawyer named Jerry Masucci. The two met at a party in a NY hotel. Around this time, Latin musicians began to have an impact on mainstream U.

Latin music was becoming trendy here and beginning to intrigue the rest of the world as well. Both types of salsa remain popular today and with the popularity of the music, came the popularity of the dance. The key instrument that provides the core groove of a salsa song is the clave.

It is often played with two wooden sticks called clave that are hit together. For salsa, there are four types of clave rhythms, the and Son claves being the most important, and the and Rumba claves. Most salsa music is played with one of the Son claves, though a Rumba clave is occasionally used, especially during Rumba sections of some songs.

There are other aspects outside of the Clave that help define Salsa rhythm: The cowbell is played on the core beats of Salsa, 1, 3, 5 and 7. The basic Salsa rhythm is quick, quick, slow, quick, quick, slow, in other words, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7, which are very similar to the beats of the cowbell.

Recognizing the rhythm of the cowbell helps one stay on Salsa rhythm. The Montuno rhythm is a rhythm that is often played with a piano. The Montuno rhythm loops over the 8 counts and is useful for finding the direction of the music.

By listening to the same rhythm, that loops back to the beginning after eight counts, one can recognize which count is the first beat of the music. Tumbao is a rhythm in salsa that is played with the conga drums. Its most basic pattern is played on the beats 2,3,4,6,7, and 8. However, the historical development of timba has been quite independent of the development of salsa in the United States and Puerto Rico and the music has its own trademark aspects due to the Cuban Embargo and strong Afro-Cuban heritage.

It came into use as a music genre name, first as timba brava, around The main precursors of timba are three bands: Historically, Casino traces its origin as a partner dance from Cuban Son dancing, and its rhythmic body motions from Afro-Cuban Rumba heritage.

Son is considered an older version and ancestor to Salsa. Son is danced on delay measure upbeat contra-tiempo following the clave Son Clave whereas Casino is usually danced on the downbeat break of 1 or 3 a-tiempo. Casino was popularized in the late s as the Cuban Son received upbeat and quicker arrangements by musicians. Casino has a very independent development, free from external influences such as Puerto Rican and North American dances partly due to the effect of the Cuban Embargo. Cuban-style salsa, also known as Casino, is popular in many places around the world, including in Europe, Latin America, North America, and even in some countries in the Middle East.

Dancing Casino is an expression of popular social culture; Latin Americans consider casino as part of social and cultural activities centering around their popular music. The origins of the name Casino are derived from the Spanish term for the dance halls where a lot of social Salsa dancing was done in Cuba during the midth century and onward.

In order to speak of the antecedents of the Rueda de Casino it is necessary to go back to the reign of Luis XIV in France where the first ballets appeared.

In order to have a good title it was necessary to know certain choreographies that were performed in the celebrations of the nobility. In the XVIII century, with the presence of French fleets in the bay of Havana, the arrival of emigrants of Louisiana, New Orleans and fundamentally the French emigration coming from Haiti with the revolution produced the appearance in Cuba of the French Contradanzas and derived from this the Cuban Contradanza arises.

The court of Luis XIV, the Creole aristocracy, Spanish and including the town interpreted the dance with pre-planned figures that all had to know and directed by a bastonero. There have been contradiction between the informants of the place where casino fist appeared. Some say that it first appeared in the Spanish Casino, Grammar school of Havana, the Patricio Lumumba and others say in the Sport Casino; what is true is that it expanded throughout the capital.

The Senior Essay — the mandatory thesis that students had to write for their BA — was the medium through which they imparted their methodological skills to their students. The result was a crop of outstanding BA theses, many of them on the thitherto ignored southern part of the country, mostly written by systematically tapping oral sources.

Quite a few of them were comparable to MA theses in many other universities. This breakthrough in Ethiopian historiography — a veritable methodological revolution — was to continue into the early s. It was also during his stay at Haile Sellassie I University that Don was to turn his attention, from the vantage point of his doctoral research, to understanding the enigmatic figure of Emperor Tewodros.

The result was two influential articles on his policy and personality — his modernizing zeal and his violence — which appeared, respectively, in the Journal of African History and the Journal of Ethiopian Studies.

Don and Lorraine were generous hosts during their stay in Addis Ababa, inviting students and colleagues to sumptuous meals at their homes. For some reason, the thing that always sticks in my mind is the Renault 4 that Don used to drive — an intrepid machine that traversed long distances throughout the country without a hitch. It became as much his trademark as his beard.

For four decades thereafter, he was to use that base to lead a fruitful and successful academic career, rising to full professorship at the Department of History in and serving as Director of the Centre for African Studies from to Indeed, it was under his directorship that the Centre, after graduating from a program to a centre status, attained a pre-eminent position in the league of such establishments in the United States.

His teaching and research at UIUC left an even more enduring impact. His undergraduate teaching, where he created and developed six of the over twenty courses that he taught, earned him the Distinguished Teaching Award of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences in and the Humanities Award for Excellence in Teaching in of the same college.

But it was through his supervision of doctoral theses, which continued after he became Emeritus Professor in , that his legacy would remain with us. He supervised fourteen PhD dissertations between and , eight of them on Ethiopian topics and six of these by Ethiopian students.

As it happened, both his first and his last student were Ethiopian Abudssamad H. Ahmad and Habtamu Mengiste, respectively. He also broadened his African links by developing a collaborative research and training arrangement with Egerton University in Kenya. While Director of the Centre for African Studies, he created a study abroad program for undergraduate and graduate students of that university. Indeed, three of the PhD dissertations he supervised were to be on Kenya, two of them by Kenyans.

But it was Ethiopia, where he conducted two seminal research projects, which remained the primary focus of his research. The first was the land tenure project in Gondar and Gojjam. Apart from helping to uncover a corpus of rich documents that throw new light on the land tenure systems of the concerned regions, the project helped to train two of his PhD students — Shumet Sishagne and Daniel Ayana. From the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Century The second project, done in collaboration with the Institute of Ethiopian Studies, was a reassessment of the environmental history of northern Ethiopia, focusing on Wollo.

Don was able to set up an impressive multi-disciplinary team, involving a geographer, two historians, a development analyst and a botanist. In addition, the project benefited from short-term visits of experts in ancillary disciplines. The preliminary findings of the research were published in in a special issue of the Journal of Ethiopian Studies.

While the other members of the team then went on to pursue other projects, Don continued to broaden those findings into yet another seminal study of the environmental history of Ethiopia. Alas, he succumbed to the illness that had been diverting his attention of late before that book could see the light of day. Donald Crummey was the winner of many awards and research grants, including an NEH research grant for his land tenure project, grants from the Macarthur Foundation for the planning and execution of his environmental history project, as well as Fellowships from Fulbright and the National Humanities Center.

He has authored two major books on Ethiopian history, co-edited five works on African history, in addition to publishing over fifty articles and dozens of contributions to the Hamurg-based Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, of whose editorial committee he was also a member.

A dedicated reviewer of books for many journals, particularly the Journal of African History, he has some sixty-five reviews to his credit. He was also a regular and active participant of the International Conference of Ethiopian Studies series, serving as the North American representative of its International Organizing Committee from to At the onset of his illness, Don used to keep his friends and colleagues updated with a regular health bulletin.

But, apparently as his condition assumed a serious turn, he gave up that habit. So, his departure must come as a shock to many. He is going to be sorely missed not only by his immediate family but also by his former students and colleagues as well as the Ethiopianist community at large.

Donald Crummey The News Gazette. The double Olympic marathon champion who is most remembered for winning a gold medal at the Rome Olympics while running barefoot was featured with the Google Doodle on August 7th, on what would have been his 81st birthday. Abebe Bikila died on October 25, at the age of He remains a national Ethiopian hero and an international sports legend.

The gathering, which was hosted by Taitu Cultural Center during its popular monthly poetry night YeWeru Gitm Mishit on July 26th, was attended by a large number of people from the Ethiopian community including families and friends of the late Poet Laureate who would have marked his 77th birthday this August.

The crowdsourcing website, dedicated to Alem who was the mother of two children, keeps track of employer abuse in the region that often leads to suicide, kidnapping, enforced servitude, murder, defacement, mutilation, scarification by sharp objects, boiling water or chemicals, rape, torture, burning, beating, hot ironing, and starvation.

The following is an interactive timeline organized and filtered using the reports that has so far been collected. We hope the visual data would assist policymakers in Ethiopia and elsewhere to better assess the gravity and the long history of the issue. Statements were also made by the head of the African Group for the month of June , Mr. The keynote speaker was Dr.

Mazrui, the famed academic and political writer on African and Islamic studies as well as North-South relations. He suggested the body should be made up of 4 or five countries, one from each region based on size of population: In , the colonial-era Waters Agreement between Egypt and Sudan was signed before all the upriver countries had achieved independence — namely Tanzania , Uganda , Rwanda , Burundi , and Kenya — excluding Ethiopia from the deal. According to a newly launched historical data visualization web site, TimeLine Ethiopia, the colonial era agreement had allocated A country is best represented by its people or leadership and leaders are the ones who are of the people by the people and for the people.

As a result, leadership shapes the character, behavior and culture of its people and the country. In this regard, it is the right time for Ethiopia to talk about the demonstration of the above facts. Ethiopia is hosting one of the biggest continental events.

Because of this all eyes are focused here. So who to be praised? No doubt, its brightest leaders. Certainly, Emperor Haile-Selassie I. He is considered by many to be the Father of Africa. However, little attention is given to those who were doing the work behind the scenes. Sometimes, the success of these individuals goes unnoticed.

The man who looks to be left under the surface is the architect and the master whose role was instrumental. After serving as a foreign minister for ten years from to he spent eight years in prison when the Derg was in power. In addition, the majority of the public are not aware of the fierce diplomatic battle that was fought by a number of states to have the OAU headquartered in their respective capital cities.

Read the full article at: In a recent interview at their home here in Addis Ababa, the couple shared with us their memories of how they met each other because of their work at the Organization of African Unity, which is the predecessor to the African Union AU.

On Saturday, May 25th the AU celebrated its 50th anniversary. And on the way once he spotted Lakatch and two of her friends waiting for a taxi. In an interview at his office inside the new building, Mr. As to his own employment at the AU: There sat another gentleman under a tree in the morning sun, dressed in a worn-out gray sweater, outside the AU compound, away from the basketball court, where from Mr.

Teshome Kinfe Woldegiorgis, 24, is waiting for customers. Teshome grew up in the neighborhood around AU. After finishing grade 10 at school, he tried to make ends meet as a shoe shiner. One of his customers worked at the AU and got him a job as a waiter. After two years, he left his job. And all that for only Birr a month. I applied for other jobs that were better paid, but I never got a reply. You spend the whole day with top officials like the AU chairperson, Jean Ping. Kebede Assefa is one of those city residents who had to move to make way for the construction of the new AU building.

He works as a barber some hundred meters down the street in a district of huts made of mud and iron sheet. A smelly river with yellow foam on the surface meanders under a bridge. The area will be demolished soon. Fortunately, this time, the city gave those losing their properties at least new housing. It was different when his old dwelling was demolished some years ago, he said. He is still waiting for compensation. Kebede, who has only one leg since his car accident and now cuts hair while leaning on a crutch, thinks positively of the AU.

We need to grow. Why should it remain like this? Like the AU, the family of Solomon and Lakatch has grown since the early s. The pictures of their four married children and five grandchildren hang on the walls of their living room.

Also, just like the AU, the couple moved to a new home. While this one is much smaller and was not built by the Chinese, the old house next door accommodates a Taiwanese and a German who would probably have never come to Addis if the AU had not made the city become a regional center for aid agencies and the international media.

Maybe the AU will become an EU one day, he said. Solomon said while Lakatch boiled coffee in a pot placed on charcoal in the background. There are the French, the English-speaking, the Arabs. There are a lot of communication gaps between us. But at the EU, there are only two languages — French and English. You can communicate, you can understand each other. Kindell, the last American President of Alemaya College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts in Ethiopia, was preparing to return home to the United States, he received a letter from the Governor of Harar whom he had befriended during his eight-year stay in the country, which he kept as a memento.

The document, shared with Tadias, was written on June 11th, and signed by Fitwarai Tewahade Woldeyes. The governor goes on to inform Dr.

Kindell that had he been younger he too would have chosen to enroll at Alemaya College. Upon his return to the United States, Dr. Kindell became president of Murray State College in Oklahoma, where he worked for 27 years until he retired in Kindell, now years-old, shared his recollections of Ethiopia.

Mel Tewahade told Tadias the letter was penned by his late father as a farewell and thank you to Dr. Kindell, who was years-old when he first arrived in Ethiopia, served for two years as the Director of Instruction and Research at the Jimma Agriculture Technical School before taking the helm at Alemaya in Harar.

And back on the phone Dr. It was the first time that a non-white people had defeated a European power. According to Teshale Tibebu, the victory the Ethiopians had achieved over Italy was different than other battles won by African forces.

While Europeans saw the defeat as a real threat to their vast colonial empires in Africa, Asia, the Americas and the Caribbean, the colonized subjects in these territories understood the event as the beginning of the end of colonialism. Adwa as Davidson aptly puts it has become a prelude to decolonization in Africa. Clearly the victory at the Battle of Adwa lends itself to multiple meanings and interpretations, depending upon perspectives and stances in relation to colonialism. The purpose of this piece is to look into the interpretations of the event from the perspectives of the colonized and how the victory brought about the idea of global Ethiopia.

It can be argued that the Battle has further enhanced the symbolic significance of Ethiopia in Africa, the Americas and the Caribbean. Ethiopia has become a symbol of the anti-colonial movements throughout the world.

The Battle may have also given geographical and historical certitude to Ethiopia. The Battle of Adwa is another significant symbol in the imaginary of the idea of Ethiopia. This paper looks into the symbolic importance of Adwa in the conception and development of pan-African solidarity and identity. Ethiopia at the time of the Battle was a highly traditional empire-state where kings and nobilities ruled over a predominantly agrarian people.

Modes of rules were not only dictated by customs and personal whims, they were also exploitative. Adwa then ushered a new paradigm to alter or reform the tradition, to replace it with a modern system of centralized and unified government. While the symbolic significance of the Battle successfully echoed the call for freedom and independence and an end to colonial domination abroad, the full meanings of Adwa have yet to be fully realized within Ethiopia.

Adwa suggests the power of indigenous multiple voices voluntarily cooperating to defeat and challenge the European colonial order. Virtually all the regions, religions, linguistic groups, aristocrats and peasants pulled their resources together to formulate and execute a strategy of victory. By their actions the Ethiopians were not only affirming the power and immense possibilities of unity in diversity, but they were placing issues of freedom and internal reform at the top of the national agenda.

Adwa necessitates a new set of directions interspersed with broader definition and application of freedom so that all those who participated in the Battle would be able to participate in the affairs of their country. Adwa reminds the Shoan nobility to let freedom ring from northern highlands to the rift valleys, the river basins, the plain lush fields of Arussi and the salty Danakil depressions. Adwa presents a unique opportunity to reconfigure the empire-state.

Unfortunately, absolutism and imperial glory overshadowed and undermined the emancipatory route suggested by the historic event of Adwa. Adwa presses on the monarchy to modernize and to let the people involve in the political process through constitutional means. Unfortunately, the leaders resisted internal reform or introduced ineffective and nominal elements of modernity.

Absolute monarchy, imitative and nominal modernization and detached and non-transformative tradition were pursued and, to this date, insist on clinging to the status quo. The status quo is the cause of immense poverty and disenfranchisement for the vast majority of the people in the country.

The multi-cultural army paid the ultimate sacrifice when about nine thousand of its soldiers died at the Battle. With their sacrifice, they set the stage for the birth of a new Ethiopia where the reach of freedom, politically and economically, would be more egalitarian.

The model, unfortunately, was not pursued in post-Adwa Ethiopia. The model of voluntary cooperation and coexistence has yet to be implemented in the twenty first century Ethiopia. The model has yet to break the cycle of poverty and endless violent conflicts in the Horn of Africa. While the victory is certainly a major milestone in Ethiopian history, Menelik and his successors failed to fully appreciate and adopt the new reality that emerged locally and internationally as a consequence of the victory.

The meaning and reach of freedom hampered by intolerance to internal criticism and resistance to reform the monarchy. Internationally, most historians agree that Adwa opened the way for the ultimate demise of colonialism in Africa and elsewhere.

Adwa is significant because it disturbed the colonial order in the world. Colonial subjects interpreted Adwa as a call to resist and defeat colonialism and racial oppressions through out the world. With Adwa, they have a permanent symbol and a constant reminder that colonialism was wrong and it ought to be defeated.

No system is just in as long as it treats human beings as objects and fodders to exploitative and profitable economic systems. Citizen subject is a right that cannot be denied and that should be exercised if at all freedom is a universal right of peoples and communities.

Adwa, to most historians, is an African victory. The Berlin Conference was convened to divide up the entire continent of Africa and assign colonial territories to European powers. The Europeans allocated the Horn of Africa to Italy. In preparation for this essay, I conducted field and library research in Ethiopia and abroad. I visited the town of Adwa in September and March Adwa is only 25 miles west of the ancient city of Aksum.

I made the journey to Adwa in search of memorial markings, to participate in the th Battle of Adwa Anniversary, to pay tribute to the war heroes and heroines, to converse with residents and to visit relevant institutions and museums. The Battle of Adwa is known locally as , the Ethiopian calendar year for The National Archive has, among other books, manuscripts and papers written in local languages and scripts, a rich collection of documents encompassing the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries of the Common Era in Ethiopian history.

Recent publications of memoirs in Amharic by former palace officials or associates, such as Fitawrari Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariam and Dejazemach Zewde Retta, have also helped a great deal to elucidate historic events.

Gebre Selassie served as a personal chronicler of the Emperor. His essay criticizes Ethiopian historians for failing to engage in critical interpretations of the past.

He also points out the achievements and failures of Emperor Menelik II. Another scholar who was trained in Europe, Afeworq Gebreyesus wrote the biography of Emperor Menelik. The work is regarded as serious and fruitful. Gebre Hiwot Baykedagn criticizes the book for lack of balance in the appraisal of the leadership of Emperor Yohannes II in comparison to Emperor Menelik. In addition, almost ten years ago, I participated in a book project to celebrate the centennial anniversary of the Battle of Adwa.

The book, One House: Menelik was a popular leader, skillful diplomat, and good listener. Menelik believed in reconciliation. Those who revolted against him once defeated they were immediately pardoned and allowed, unfortunately, to retain their original privileged position. Menelik was keenly aware of the colonial expansionist ambition of the French, British and Italians in the region. As a result, he actively sought and acquired modern weapons from Europe.

He even bought a large quantity of weapons from the Italians. He also fully exploited the rivalries among the three colonizers.

More importantly, out of a long war experience, together with his ministers, regional kings, he developed a winning war plan. Menelik appealed to love of family, religion and country. He reminded Ethiopians that the intention of the enemy is to take away the core values and traditions cherished by the people.

Menelik declared translation mine:. It is also through the grace of God that I am ruling. Therefore, I have no fear of death. More importantly, God has never let me down and I am confident that he will let me be victorious again.

His objective is to destroy the country and to change the religion. As a result of a major cattle disease that devastated a large number of our livestock and brought great sufferings to our farmers and pastoralists in the last few years, I remained quiet and patient to numerous hostile provocations. And yet the enemy continued to dig dipper in the ground like a hog. My fellow country folks, I do not believe that I disappointed you in the past. You have not also disappointed me.

If you are strong, then help me with your strength to fight the enemy. If you are not strong, I seek your moral support for the sake of your children, wife and religion. If, on the other hand, you seek lame excuse not to join the national campaign against our enemy, I will be upset and I will not have mercy on you, I will punish you.

My campaign begins in October, and I expect volunteers from Shoa to gather in Woreilu by mid October. The Battle of Adwa: She exemplified the possibility of reform and transformation from within. She was a persistent critic of the nobilities and ministers of Menelik.

Born in Wollo from a Christian and Muslim family, Taitu had a comprehensive early training in traditional education. Education is often the privy of male children, who continue their traditional schooling in the churches and monasteries for an extended period of time. Those who passed the arduous levels of scholarship would be allowed to serve as deacons and later priests in the thousands of churches and monasteries throughout the country.

Besides, Taitu was a great benefactor of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. She contributed land and building materials to several important monasteries. She also supported the Ethiopian Church in Jerusalem, Israel. Taitu was married to Menelik at the age of forty-three and she was four years older than him. He was being respectful to an elder.

On the other hand, the deference might have been earned as a result of the loyalty Taitu brought to the marriage from important northern regions of Begemedir, Lasta and Yeju. Clearly the marriage was more than romance; it was in fact, a political marriage intended to calm the competing Rases of the northern region. According to Qegnazematch Tadesse Zewelde, Taitu was co-equal with Menelik, who consulted her prior to making important decisions. Taitu was known for her courage and uprightness. She urged the Emperor to reject the now infamous Wuchale Treaty of as soon as the discrepancies between the Italian and the Amharic versions were discovered by Aleqa Atsme Giorgis, a historian and a councilor to the Emperor.

Taitu led her own battalion at the Battle of Adwa. At the Battle of Mekelle, she advised Ras Mekonen to cut off the water supply to the Italians in order to disgorge them from their entrenched and heavily fortified positions at Endeyesus Hill on the eastern part of Mekelle City.

Tadesse also identifies Taitu as the receiver and analyzer of intelligence information collected by spies, such as Basha Awalom Haregot and Gebre Igziabher.

Historians characterize the intelligence data obtained by Awalom and Gebre Igzabher as crucial importance to the Ethiopian victory at the battle. The information enabled Menelik to attack the Italians, at a site of his choosing, at Adwa instead of Adigrat, near the Eritrean border where the Italians expected to have a relative logistical advantage. The Italians were hoping that he would meet them in Adigrat, close to where they had a well-protected military base.

Because of the many absences of the Emperor from the capital city, Taitu virtually managed the affairs of the government in consultation with key ministers. Menelik conducted several campaigns both in the north and southern part of the country against his old and new rivals. From the royal residence in Addis Ababa, a city that she founded, Taitu made a concerted effort to break the monopoly of political power by Shoan nobility. She used every opportunity to diversify the power base through marriage and other means.

Through weddings, she weaved a complex web of partnerships between the Shaon nobilities and those of the northern highlands. It is true that she favored her relatives to be close to power. She presided over many arranged marriages favorable to her cousins whom she anticipated to take over from Menelik. And yet she spoke her mind and consistently defended national interests. Following the war Taitu and Menelik shared the enormous task of building a newly reconstituted country with diverse population and cultures.

Differing qualities of two great Ethiopians crystallized into an effective and successful leadership. Their marriage was that of equals characterized by trust, respect and reciprocity. Taitu Bitul was an authentic Ethiopian leader. Her deeds at a critical moment in Ethiopian history not only saved Ethiopia from European colonization, but it also paved the way to decolonize Africa. Her advice and action resulted in the defeat of the Italian army at the Battle of Adwa.

Taitu epitomized Ethiopian leaders at their best. She consistently fought hard for the public good. She knew and defended national interests by overcoming challenges both from within and from without. Her leadership immensely contributed to the process of nation building and modernization at the beginning of the 20th century. Lij Iyasu, the heir to the throne, failed to cooperate with her or at least to seek her counsel.

Iyasu was overthrown by anti-Taitu group of Shoan nobility, three years after he assumed power at the age of fourteen.

To her credit, Empress Zewditu who succeeded Iyasu maintained good relations with Taitu, but power had shifted to Ras Taferi, the regent who became Emperor Haile Selassie. She pushed for common issues that united Ethiopians. While the two books made an effort to document the biography of Taitu, Ambassador Mengiste Desta offers a more detailed chronology and contextual explanation than Tadesse Zewelde. Tadesse, on the other hand, utilizes primary sources and eyewitness accounts in his readable narrative.

Mengiste also turns his publication into a campaign to build a memorial for Taitu in Addis Ababa. He is urging committees organized to carry out the project to bring it to fruition. Taitu, unlike Baafina the ex-wife who sought to undermine the king , consulted, caucused, shared and reinforced strong leadership with the Emperor.

The married couple and partners became formidable leaders to face and resolve many challenges both in times of war and peace. It is also important to remember that Taitu brought to the union her northern experience and knowledge given her link to Gondar, Semen, Begemedir and Yeju nobilities. In other words, the marriage can be characterized both as political and as the saying goes yacha gabecha.

Taitu insisted on remaining a respected person not a dependent by seeking ways to improve her life through education, a rare and groundbreaking approach given our entrenched and backward notion and praxis on gender. Taitu, who is known as the light of Ethiopia, also played harp and kirar a remarkable combination of spiritual and secular musical instruments and designed decorative curtains for churches and monasteries.

She fully engaged herself in activities that significantly contributed to national interests. She named Addis Ababa New Flower as a permanent seat of the central government. She ran the administration during the frequent absences of Menelik from the Capital, originally located at Addis Alem before it was moved to nearby Entoto.

The building commenced while Menelik was in Harar in a military campaign for an extended period of time. Upon his return, he approved the initiative and moved with her into the new house in Addis Ababa. Negus Sahle Selassie shares credits with Taitu in regards to the founding of the city. The restaurant serves local and international cuisines. Again Atse Menelik supported her entrepreneurship by becoming a regular customer of the establishment and by encouraging the nobilities and government officials to patronize the business.

Besides inaugurating yengeda bet , she has launched and encouraged both local and international tourism. In an attempt to modernize the Ethiopian economy and to counter the heavy handedness of the Abyssinan Bank, a foreign firm, Taitu started a domestic financial institution where indebted traders were able to obtain loans and continue commerce.

She set up the first wool factory in collaboration with experts from Turkey and India thereby paving the way for possible Ethiopian industrial age. Taitu also used local raw materials to manufacture candles. Church costumes were designed and made by tailors in an organized fashion thanks to her innovative efforts. She also commissioned the construction of a multi-storied home in Jerusalem to be used by priests and pilgrims from Ethiopia.

These are some of the accomplishments of Taitu. By any measurement, she is a treasure that deserves a national monument and her legacy continues to inspire the young generation to know, build and defend the country.

However, media reports at the time estimated that attendance in Seattle was less than half of what was projected. Kebede, who had not seen the exhibition in Seattle, told NYT. She helps build the image of our country.

The fossilized remains were discovered by American paleoanthropologist Donald Johanson in in the Afar region of Ethiopia. According to Johanson, an official at the Ministry of Culture, Bekele Negussie, gave Lucy her Ethiopian name Dinkenesh shortly after the landmark discovery. As to the inspiration for Lucy, Johanson shared its origins with Tadias Magazine a few years ago: Click here for a closer look at the California exhibit.

The Hidden Treasure of Ethiopia Where: Bowers Museum, N. Through April 28 Hours: Famous fossil Lucy leaves Ethiopia for controversial U. This forgotten Mississippi Coast hero, a daring aviator who survived a dog fight with the son of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, encouraged other blacks to fly when it was taboo in Jim Crow America.

He helped change a ragtag Ethiopian military into a force against fascism, itself a form of the racism the Brown Condor faced in his own country.

Before the latest biography, enough was known of Col. Yet, to most Americans, even those enthralled by military and black history, the Mississippian who was once the best known black pilot in the world is an unknown. The page biography was published earlier this year by Potomac Books. This book was written to shed light on what really happened. The Brown Condor was an early aviation pioneer and a war hero. Click here to read more at sunherald. In , the Ethiopian Emperor, Haile Selassie, decided to send thousands of troops to fight as part of the American-led UN force supporting South Korea against the communist North and its ally, China.

Capt Mamo Habtewold, now 81 years old, was then a young lieutenant in the 3rd Kagnew Battalion. He clearly remembers a send-off from the Emperor himself, as he was about to leave for the other side of the world. Continue reading at BBC. New York TADIAS — In the end, Emperor Haile Selassie died in prison, officially of natural causes but widely rumored to have been killed without trial by a military junta, apparently suffocated to death and buried under a toilet for more than seventeen years.

Prior to that, however, the late emperor whose remains has since been moved to its current resting place at Kidist Selassie Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa, was a long-reigning ruler of Ethiopia for more than four decades. He had been fiercely criticized as oppressive and brutal for his reluctance to share power, and praised as visionary for his single-minded policy of modernization.

According to a new book by Theodore M. Below is the rest of our interview with Professor Ted Vestal about his most recent book: Ted Vestal Courtesy photo. In the same year as the Battle of Adwa , a decision by the U. Growing numbers of African-Americans began to improve their economic status by entering professions, businesses, and higher paying occupations.

African-Americans all over the country were voting in larger numbers—sometimes requiring the aid of the Supreme Court to accomplish this.

The ideas of the New Deal became a force creating a deep-seated change in American mores, with many people convinced that the maintenance of a caste system was inconsistent with the twentieth century idea of America as a constitutional democracy. This changed on 17 May , when the Supreme Court rendered perhaps the most fateful judicial decision of the twentieth century—Brown v. For the first time, the Court met head-on the moral challenge of the separate but equal doctrine in public schools and in a unanimous decision declared that doctrine unconstitutional.

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