Modele Planche A Roulette

And there won't be any new people. Use chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other sciences to study the principles underlying the processing and deterioration of foods; analyze food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, and protein; discover new food sources; research ways to make processed foods safe, palatable, and healthful; and apply food science knowledge to determine best ways to process, package, preserve, store, and distribute food. If we don't want to go down into the well, how do we get out the water? Teach secondary school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students. May specialize in wildlife research and management.


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Preference, especially in the key areas, was given to those with knowledge of foreign languages and volunteering experience, but not necessarily to Russian nationals. Free public transport services were offered for ticketholders during the World Cup, including additional trains linking between host cities, as well as services such as bus service within them.

The full schedule was announced by FIFA on 24 July without kick-off times, which were confirmed later. Russia was placed in position A1 in the group stage and played in the opening match at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow on 14 June against Saudi Arabia , the two lowest-ranked teams of the tournament at the time of the final draw.

The Krestovsky Stadium in Saint Petersburg hosted the first semi-final on 10 July and the third place play-off on 14 July. The opening ceremony took place on Thursday, 14 June , at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, preceding the opening match of the tournament between hosts Russia and Saudi Arabia. Former Brazilian World Cup-winning striker Ronaldo walked out with a child wearing a Russia shirt. English pop singer Robbie Williams then performed two songs before he and Russian soprano Aida Garifullina performed a duet while other performers emerged, dressed in the flags of all 32 teams and carrying a sign bearing the name of each nation.

Dancers were also present. Competing countries were divided into eight groups of four teams groups A to H. Teams in each group played one another in a round-robin basis, with the top two teams of each group advancing to the knockout stage. Ten European teams and four South American teams progressed to the knockout stage, together with Japan and Mexico. For the first time since , Germany reigning champions did not advance past the first round.

For the first time since , no African team progressed to the second round. For the first time, the fair play criteria came into use, when Japan qualified over Senegal due to having received fewer yellow cards. Only one match, France v Denmark, was goalless. Until then there were a record 36 straight games in which at least one goal was scored.

All times listed below are local time. The ranking of teams in the group stage was determined as follows: In the knockout stages, if a match is level at the end of normal playing time, extra time is played two periods of 15 minutes each and followed, if necessary, by a penalty shoot-out to determine the winners.

If a match went into extra time, each team was allowed to make a fourth substitution, the first time this had been allowed in a FIFA World Cup tournament. Twelve own goals were scored during the tournament, doubling the record of six set in In total, only four players were sent off in the entire tournament, the fewest since A player is automatically suspended for the next match for the following offences: The following awards were given at the conclusion of the tournament.

The award was sponsored by Hyundai. FIFA also published an alternate team of the tournament based on player performances evaluated through statistical data. Prize money amounts were announced in October The tournament logo was unveiled on 28 October by cosmonauts at the International Space Station and then projected onto Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre during an evening television programme. Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko said that the logo was inspired by "Russia's rich artistic tradition and its history of bold achievement and innovation", and FIFA President Sepp Blatter stated that it reflected the "heart and soul" of the country.

The official mascot for the tournament was unveiled 21 October , and selected through a design competition among university students. A public vote was used to select from three finalists—a cat, a tiger, and a wolf. The first phase of ticket sales started on 14 September , The general visa policy of Russia did not apply to participants and spectators, who were able to visit Russia without a visa right before and during the competition regardless of their citizenship.

A Fan-ID was required to enter the country visa-free, while a ticket, Fan-ID and a valid passport were required to enter stadiums for matches. Fan-IDs also granted World Cup attendees free access to public transport services, including buses, and train service between host cities. Fan-ID was administered by the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media , who could revoke these accreditations at any time to "ensure the defence capability or security of the state or public order".

The official match ball of the World Cup group stage was " Telstar 18 ", based on the name and design of the first Adidas World Cup ball from It was introduced on 9 November After the group stage, "Telstar Mechta" was used for the knockout stage. The word mechta Russian: The difference between Telstar 18 and Mechta is the red details on the design. Its music video was released on 8 June Thirty-three footballers who are alleged to be part of the steroid program are listed in the McLaren Report.

The choice of Russia as host has been challenged. Controversial issues have included the level of racism in Russian football, [] [] [] and discrimination against LGBT people in wider Russian society. Allegations of corruption in the bidding processes for the and World Cups caused threats from England's FA to boycott the tournament. Garcia , a US attorney, to investigate and produce a report on the corruption allegations.

Eckert's summary cleared Russia and Qatar of any wrongdoing, but was denounced by critics as a whitewash. On 3 June , the FBI confirmed that the federal authorities were investigating the bidding and awarding processes for the and World Cups. In response to the March poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal , British Prime Minister Theresa May announced that no British ministers or members of the royal family would attend the World Cup, and issued a warning to any travelling England fans.

The British Foreign Office and MPs had repeatedly warned English football fans and "people of Asian or Afro-Caribbean descent" travelling to Russia of "racist or homophobic intimidation, hooligan violence and anti-British hostility".

At the close of the World Cup Russia was widely praised for its success in hosting the tournament, with Steve Rosenberg of the BBC deeming it "a resounding public relations success" for Putin, adding, "The stunning new stadiums, free train travel to venues and the absence of crowd violence has impressed visiting supporters.

Russia has come across as friendly and hospitable: All the foreign fans I have spoken to are pleasantly surprised. FIFA President Gianni Infantino stated, "Everyone discovered a beautiful country, a welcoming country, that is keen to show the world that everything that has been said before might not be true.

A lot of preconceived ideas have been changed because people have seen the true nature of Russia. The elimination of the US national team in qualifying led to concerns that US interest and viewership of this World Cup would be reduced especially among "casual" viewers interested in the US team , especially noting how much Fox paid for the rights, and that US games at the World Cup peaked at During a launch event prior to the elimination, Fox stated that it had planned to place a secondary focus on the Mexican team in its coverage to take advantage of their popularity among US viewers factoring Hispanic and Latino Americans.

Fox stated that it was still committed to broadcasting a significant amount of coverage for the tournament. In February , Ukrainian rightsholder UA: PBC stated that it would not broadcast the World Cup. This came in the wake of growing boycotts of the tournament among the Football Federation of Ukraine and sports minister Ihor Zhdanov. Broadcast rights to the tournament in the Middle East were hampered by an ongoing diplomatic crisis in Qatar over alleged support of extremist groups.

Qatar is the home country of the region's rightsholder, beIN Sports. On 2 June , beIN pulled its channels from Du and Etisalat , but with service to the latter restored later that day. We could go live there!

But being a good scientist, and professor, O'Neill famously asked his brightest students: We all live at the bottom of a well.. The Earth's gravity well is so deep that, it is said, once you're in orbit you're halfway to anywhere in the solar system. So, if you've just spent all this fuel not to mention pain, sweat, tears and astronaut blood to get out of a gravity well, why should you be so eager to dive back into another one? The answer is resources, which weighed heavily on everyone's mind in the 70s.

If you're going to live in space, with an expanding population, you need resources and all the resources O'Neill knew about were at the bottom of gravity wells. If we don't want to go down into the well, how do we get out the water? The fundamental problem with getting material out of a gravity well isn't lifting it up - the analogy to a water well kind of fails you there - it's giving the resources enough horizontal momentum that they can enter a stable orbit.

On the Moon, that velocity is low enough that O'Neill figured a high speed train could achieve it. The train would be magnetically levitated about the track and the resources would be hurtled into orbit in steady stream.

Then a big catcher's mitt would grab the resources and deliver them to a stable point in space where the colony was being built. When completed, the massive colony would spin to provide artificial gravity. The colony would be economically self supporting. They could, for example, build satellites and "launch" them, but the primary market that the colony would support would be energy.

Remember, to everyone in the 70s it was apparent that the world's oil supply was drying up this is still apparent to a lot of people today. What would the cars run on when all the oil was gone? Well, electricity seems like a good bet, and there's lots and lots of free electricity available in space in the form of solar power. Beaming power from a space colony down to earth is the fundamental O'Neillian dream.

The dream that provides hope. Carl Sagan's love and wonder for the cosmos is powerful and universal. So long as the scientific spirit of openness continues there will always be marvels for the public to enjoy.

The continuing light pollution around cities, while tragic, makes the public appreciation of orbital telescopes even stronger. Human servicing of those telescopes and the sheer marvel of the Earth be it experienced on suborbital spaceflight or future orbital spaceflight will always be valuable. Wernher von Braun's drive for Grand Challenges to inspire the next generation to continue Technological Progress is, to me, a fundamental part of modern life. There is no problem, great or small, that humanity cannot overcome with the measured application of scientific knowledge and technology.

O'Neill's vision, while grand and exquisite, has always felt to me to be a little too much a reaction to his times. What's more, the fundamental motivation for O'Neill's work, The Limits To Growth, has been shown to be fundamentally alarmist and, well, wrong - even if the damage they've done to our hope is permanent, I don't think the same urgency exists today as it did in the 70s and so I'm sad to say that I think O'Neill's solution has been ruled out.

So are we destined to travel down a path where Technological Progress is shunned for Conservation and Environmentalism? That said, Gerard K. O'Neill's vision has always had the greatest appeal to me. Over the years it has been slowly changing. The less timeless motivations have been replaced with more timeless ones. Where O'Neill would have said that the Earth is running out of resources, modern commentators prefer to estimate the vast wealth available in space and ask: Similarly, where O'Neill would say solar power can replace oil when it runs out, modern commentators ask: When you start to think like an Economic O'Neillian the vision changes completely.

The fundamental motivation for human spaceflight becomes closing the business case. Does mining the Moon make good business sense? Only if there aren't cheaper resources available. In space, cheaper means less delta-v. If you or your resources are at the bottom of a gravity well then you better plan to spend a lot on delta-v.

The traditionalist O'Neillian answer is to build a huge infrastructure on the Moon to get the cheapest delta-v possible which, btw, is a consistent theme in launch hardware , but the Economic O'Neillian looks to other opportunities. By choosing to live there you have all the resources you need without the delta-v penalty of getting them to the colony. The pure Economic O'Neillians are gaining traction and if they rephrase O'Neill's famous question as "where is the best place for an expanding human civilization?

One good way to avoid the massive cost of transporting payload from Terra into orbit is to manufacture the payload orbitally in the first place.

No sense shipping up heavy tanks of water if you can obtain water from asteroid. The water on the asteroid is already in space. Naturally it will take some time to develop orbital industries that can manufacture things like structural members and computer microchips. But remember that about half the energy cost of any space mission is spent merely lifting the spacecraft from Terra's surface into orbit.

Orbit is halfway to anywhere , remember? Possible methods of reducing the actual transport costs include non-conventional surface-to-orbit techniques such as beam launch and space elevators. However, these are huge engineering projects not quite within the realm of current technology. With the added difficulty of finding insurers willing to underwrite a trillion dollar project that could be so trivially be sabotaged with a easily concealable bomb.

Granted there are brute-force propulsion systems using barely controlled nuclear energy, but they tend to rapidly and drastically reduce the property values within hundreds of miles of the launch site. Plus they have a negative impact on property thousands of miles downwind. Radioactive fallout is funny that way.

Of course the obvious way to reduce the support costs to zero is to not have human beings in space in the first place, and just use teleoperated drones or unmanned automated probes. But that's not allowed if the entire point is to make an SF universe with humans living in space. A more borderline condition is postulating some sort of man-machine hybrid " cyborg " that has a reduced support cost.

Yes, a human brain floating in a jar inside a robot body will have a much reduced oxygen and food requirements. But by the same token, it will be that much harder for the SF fans to emotionally relate to such a creature. Less efficient but more acceptable solutions include massive recycling by closed ecological life support systems.

Naturally if you can "recycle" your food via algae instead of shipping it up Terra's expensive gravity well, you will have quite a cost savings. Charles Stross has another incendiary essay where he is of the opinion that space colonization is implicitly incompatible with both libertarian ideology and the myth of the American frontier.

I define "MacGuffinite" as some valuable ore, substance, or commodity that hopefully introduces no unintended consequences to the SF universe you are creating. In the realm of a science fiction universe that contains a thriving space economy and lots of manned space flight, MacGuffinite is:.

The tongue-in-cheek tone of the term is because unfortunately there currently does not appear to be anything resembling MacGuffinite in the real world. But it is going to have to be something astronomically valuable.

Gold or diamonds are not anywhere near valuable enough and they depend upon artifical scarcity as well , it will have to be something like a cure for male pattern baldness or the perfect weight-loss pill. Space exploration and research is obviously not MacGuffinite. Otherwise NASA wouldn't have its funding cut with such depressing regularity. Why would you live on the seafloor? Turns out humans don't mind being tightly packed so while we could live tightly packed under the water, we can do so on coasts instead and more easily resource wise given oxygen needs etc and commute.

No need anything we want to farm can typically be done so from the bottom with the odd trip down if and when its necessary thus remain on the shore and commute or at the surface and commute. Possible but no need yet as terrestrial resources are still available. Nodules have attracted attention, but there's not enough demand or consistency yet to bother given continental resources.

Unlike going to space there isn't a large enough cost at least yet to going up and down with the frequency needed to get what we want. So we lack the incentive.

Its pretty apparent that whether talking of Antarctica, the seafloor or space the incentive structure not just the means have to be there.

We don't have the incentive for any of them as yet. At a guess and it is a guess that is only partially educated I'd say in the next years we'll start to see the incentive for going to Antarctica, on the scale of we'll see the seafloor open up but probably still see commuting rather than habitation. How long it takes us to get enough incentive to use a space-based resource is a tougher call. Depends on how fast we chew up existing terrestrial resources, what new demands will arise with changes in technology, and the realised cost of getting into orbit and staying in space vs digging deeper into the crust.

The fiction lover in mes likes the idea of colonies on other planets or orbital mining facilities etc, the realist is more apt to agree that if people are living off Earth anytime in my lifetime it will be in the purely "scientific" curosity outpost mode or tourism venture that we currently see as standard on Antarctica and the seafloor where there are a cople of purely scientific undersea domes, one of which they used to teach astronauts at, not sure if they still do.

What could you possibly want from Mars? A million tons of dust? Why did Earth go to space in the first place, if not for abstract knowledge? Words crowded over each other to reach Lit's mouth.

They jammed in his throat, and he was speechless. He spread his hands, made frantic gestures, gulped twice, and said, "It's obvious! Vacuum for the vacuum industries. A place to build cheap without all kinds of bracing girders. Free fall for people with weak hearts.

Room to test things that might blow up. A place to learn physics where you can watch it happen. The glare took in Garner's withered legs, his drooping, mottled, hairless skin, the decades that showed in his eyes—and Lit remembered his visitor's age.

So, imagine a nice O'Neill cylinder with a perfectly controlled guaranteed climate for growing your cacao crop, a distinct absence of local governments and revolutionaries and their wacky fun ideas causing trouble in your company town hab, and with a surface area as large as you care to build it, or it and its neighbors.

The call came two weeks later, in the middle of the night—the real lunar night. By Plato City time, it was Sunday morning. This was it, Cooper knew. Air lock five meant that they were going outside the dome. Chandra had found something. The presence of the police driver restricted conversation as the tractor moved away from the city along the road roughly bulldozed across the ash and pumice. Low in the south, Earth was almost full, casting a brilliant blue-green light over the infernal landscape.

However hard one tried. Cooper told himself, it was difficult to make the Moon appear glamorous. But nature guards her greatest secrets well; to such places men must come to find them. Orbital Propellant Depots are very valuable. Not because liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen are particularly rare, but shipping the stuff up Terra's gravity well makes them outrageously expensive.

ISRU propellants are incredibly cheap in comparison. Anybody operating chemical or nuclear-thermal rockets will be potential customers. The bottom line is that such depots can make cis-lunar and Mars missions within the delta-V capabilities of a chemical rocket.

The problem is building the infrastruture in the first place. The financial risks are high, no corporation will touch it. Some kind of harvest-able resource is tricky. Many mineral resources available from, say, the Asteroid Belt could be harvested by robot mining ships. And even if the harvest process requires humans on the spot, if that is all that requires humans, you will wind up with a universe filled with the outer space equivalent of off-shore oil rigs.

This will have a small amount of people living on the rig for a couple of years before they return to Terra in order to blow their accumulated back-pay, not the desired result of large space colonies. Rick Robinson says resource extraction is an economic monoculture, and like other monocultures it does not support a rich ecosystem.

These are hypothetical particles that have yet to be observed. Niven postulated that [a] they existed, [b] they only exist in the space environment for some unexplained reason, [c] they could only be profitably harvested by human beings for some unexplained reason, and [d] they allowed the construction of tiny electric motors since the magnetic field of a monopole falls off linearly instead of inverse square.

The latter was desirable since in space mass is always a penalty factor. This is all highly unlikely, but at least Larry Niven worried about the problem in the first place. Regolith is the veneer of rock dust common on asteroids and moons.

The stream of solar wind causes space weathering, a deposition of wind particles directly into the dust. The atoms are implanted at a shallow depth Wind-enriched particles contain traces of hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, and other low Z elements rare in space. These volatiles can be recovered by scavenging: The concentrations of volatiles in lunar maria regolith is a few hundred parts per million ppm of each type.

Other valuable materials, magnetically or electrophoretically separable from maria regolith, include iron fines, uranium ppm , and ice crystals in permanently shadowed regions. The helium fraction includes 5 to parts per billion of the rare isotope 3 He, valued because it is rare on Earth, and can be used as a fusion fuel, using the 3 He-D "clean" aneutronic fusion reaction.

I've found that Jupiter's radiation belt and wind speeds make it unsuitable for direct harvest. However, that same radiation belt and corresponding magnetic fields could be used for 1 power 2 transportation and 3 spallation of useful elements into needed isotopes. The last one is an interesting prospect from the mineral spewing volcanic Io.

I don't actually recommend colonizing Io, but rather maintaining essentially ion farms within the radiation belt. The other moons are suitable for exploration, but Callisto the outermost Galilean Moon is protected from the solar winds by Jupiter's magnetosphere while being far enough away to reduce the radiation exposure. That base would hold vast subsurface tanks of water for aquacultures and a whole biosystem.

Waste heat from the reactors would be used to keep the tanks temperature regulated and the whole environment could be expanded in a modular manner depending on the waste heat requirements.

It takes two weeks to get receive the same radiation dose on Callisto that you receive on Earth every day. Moving in to Ganymede the next closest moon you would get week's dose of radiation in one day. Cole was listening carefully to the Morse code signals coming through from Pluto.

You can recognize that broken-down truck-horse trot of his on the key as far away as you can hear it. He's got a rich platinum property. Sells ninety percent of his output to buy his power, and the other eleven percent for his clothes and food. He's figured out that's the most economic level of production.

If he produces less, he won't be able to pay for his heating power, and if he produces more, his operation power will burn up his bank account too fast. A man after my own heart. How does he plan to restock his bank account? He does it regularly—sort of a commuter. Out here his power bills eat it up. On Mercury he goes in for potassium, and sells the power he collects in cooling his dome, of course. He's a good miner, and the old fool can make money down there. Now he sat quiet waiting for the reply, glancing at the chronometer.

He's after money," replied Cole gravely. He wouldn't be able to remake that bankroll every time if he wasn't. You'll see his Dome out there on Pluto—it's always the best on the planet. For asteroid mining, you can make the case either way — I can tell you that asteroid mining isn't about getting ore from the asteroid. It's about using disttilate mining techniques, and it's a capital rich process. You no more find the Heinleinesque belter miners in their pesky torch ships than you find aluminum or copper mining done by anything smaller than ALCOA or Standard Copper.

The economies of scale are too large for them to make much sense the other way. Volatile mining for can cities, spaceships, etc does somewhat support the concept of a family grubstake mine Sure, the economies of scale argue against belter miners, but economies of scale argue against subsistence farming too. I'd argue that if someone wants there to be a wild-eyed miner who is trying to strike it rich, for fictional purposes, it could happen. Might be useful to know how soon before he has to come home begging, though.

Just to compute the astronomical sorry odds of finding an asteroid of solid diamond, or osmium, or whatever is in demand. Actually, no they don't. A subsistence farmer can make enough to support himself — his expenses are lower than his income.

An independent miner will generally have expenses exceeding his income. More sophisticated versions of the Belter mythos recognize the long odds. I could spout all the statistics from memory. Average distance from the Sun, 2. If you jumped as hard as you could you'd go up a couple of kilometers, and take hours for the round trip.

It wouldn't be a smart thing to do. Composition, varied, with plenty of veins of metals. Moria was once part of a much bigger rock, one big enough to have had a molten core. Then it got battered to hell and gone, exposing what had been the interior.

Now you can mine: There's gold and silver. There's also water and ammonia ices under the surface, which are a hell of a lot more important than the metals. Without the metals we wouldn't be out here. Without the ices we couldn't stay. Our supporters on Earth called us the cutting edge of technology. We were the first of a series of asteroid mine operations that would eventually liberate Earth forever from shortages of raw materials. The orbital space factories already demonstrated what space manufacturing could do; and with asteroid mines to supply raw materials, the day would come when everyone on Earth could enjoy the benefits of industry without the penalties of industrial pollution.

They fought hard in Congress: Is it not time that mankind looked twenty years and more ahead, instead of always seeing no further than the next election? Unfortunately there were more on the other side. We were, they said, a terrible waste of resources. We absorbed billions that could go to immediate improvements for everyone. Foreign aid; schoolhouses; unemployment; these were the immediate problems, and they would not go away through dumping money into outer space! Who ever heard of Moria?

Who could even find it? A rock not even visible through Earth's largest telescopes, a tiny speck hundreds of millions of miles away, where expensive people demanded more and more expensive equipment. Our friends kept us alive, but they couldn't get us many supply ships; and we were holding on with our fingernails. There wasn't much to joke about. There will be no more support from Earth. Commander Wiley let the chatter go on for a while.

Then he said, "There's a way. It's not something I can order, and it's not something I can put to a vote. But there's a way. It can be us, or most of us, if that's what's got to be done. But it could be something else. Twelve thousand tons of copper, iron, silver, and gold.

Twelve thousand tons that we can put into Earth orbit from here. If we use every engine we've got and all our fuel. It belongs to the first salvage crew that can get aboard. There's a Swiss firm willing to buy our cargo if we can get it to Earth orbit.

They'll pay enough to let us buy our own ship. And they'd be getting a hell of a deal even so. I could see international lawyers arguing this case for thirty years and more. The United States didn't want us, but they wouldn't want their billions to be lost to the Swiss. We'll be on short rations the whole time.

And there won't be any new people. Kevin Hardoy-Randall let out a wail ed note: Commander, can we really do it? Using petroleum as MacGuffinite is oh so very zeerust , but the cynic in me gloomily predicts this will probably come true in real life. The more you try to drag the world into the future with cool stuff like fusion power, the more it will stubbornly try to keep burning coal.

Hauled ironically by rocketships. Ray McVay has a brilliant variant on using mining as McGuffinite. He noted that in the Ring Raiders speculation, the presence of valuable helium-3 fusion fuel in the atmosphere of Saturn is MacGuffinite.

As he puts it "Did you catch that? On Titan it rains natural gas. Hundreds of times more natural gas and other liquid hydrocarbons than all the known oil and natural gas reserves on Terra, as a matter of fact. What's better, unlike helium-3, we already know how to use petroleum. Also unlike helium-3, there is a huge demand for the stuff. Naturally shipping the stuff from Titan to Terra does increase the price of Titan oil. But consider Oil Shale. The expense of extracting oil from shale adds about a hundred dollars a barrel to the price.

For decades nobody bothered with it because conventional oil was so cheap. However, as conventional oil became more scarce, its price rose. At the break-even price, oil shale becomes worthwhile. Keep in mind that the break-even price might be artificially raised by external events. This is the basis for Mr. Or at least for the million years it will take for Terra to produce more petroleum.

As civilization starts again, the jump from wood fuel to nuclear power or solar energy is just a little too broad. Not to mention the difficulty producing plastics or fertilizer without petroleum feed stocks.

This is what will drive the industrialization of Titan and the creation of fleets of space-going supertanker spacecraft carrying black gold "Titan Tea" to Terra. Bring oil from Titan or it is Game Over for the next million years. In his Conjunction universe, the fun starts when the irate colonists of the Jovian moons take advantage of The Great Conjunction, when Jupiter moves into the center of the Hohmann trajectory between Titan and Terra.

Here comes the Pirates of Jupiter! Phosphorus was previously mentioned as a vital resource in short supply in the solar system. Indeed, it was suggested that Terra would use this as a weapon to keep the space colonies subservient to Terran Control.

However, I received an email from a gentleman named Mr. MJW Nicholas with a brilliant suggestion. He points out that Terra itself is heading for a phosphorus shortage, " Peak Phosphorus ". In that case, instead of Terra having a strangle hold on the space colonies, it might be the other way around. Intense MacGuffinite, because the hungry teeming masses on over-populated Terra have got to eat, and phosphorus is the sine qua non of farming. I was interested to read in the 'Rocketpunk and MacGuffinite' topic the subject of peak oil, and how humanity could make use of Titan.

I did a little bit of digging and it struck me how, even if we do come up with viable and sustainable alternatives for both transport and energy production, there are no such alternatives for the vast quantity of other petroleum products our modern society is utterly dependent on. It was suggested on a number of websites that alternatives for pharmaceuticals would be the holistic or home remedy type eg.

Other types of natural fibres come from animals, but then they need grazing land, which means even more land is used. Regardless of the land usage, there is always one thing land will need to be used for — food crops.

There is only a finite amount of arable land available, and many breeds of plant can only be grown in certain locations, based on a wide range of environmental variables, which further limits crop yields without either long-term efforts into selectively breeding, or direct manipulation of genes for desired traits. The first one can take potentially hundreds of generations to achieve, depending on the desired result, and the latter requires laboratories, who use equipment that would be difficult and costly to produce, repair or replace in a post-peak oil world, even if one takes into account the usage of oil-sands.

Even if we tapped into difficult to access reserves on a larger scale than we already do, such as deep-sea wells and oil-sands, and even if the ban on exploiting Antarctica's potentially vast mineral wealth was lifted, this is still not a viable long-term solution.

Obviously, getting to Titan and extracting, and refining the mineral wealth there in sufficient quantities, and shipping it back, would be immensely costly.

I know full well that you know the amount of work and effort behind setting up propellant depots and in-orbit refineries and all the other stuff needed to set that kind of infrastructure in motion, let alone maintain it. This kind of future is one, however, that allows for colonization. But it got me thinking — what are other things that humans, and modern civilisation with it's global scale infrastructure would need, and we have a finite amount of? Then I harked back to another part of your website , where you mention phosphorus.

Much like peak oil, it is predicted, optimistically, that we'll hit Peak Phosphorus within the next years, pessimistic estimates suggest by Having done some more digging, I noticed that whilst some claim that recycling phosphorus from sewage, and having better crop management and limiting run-off, etc. Even if we stop it altogether, we're now limited on how much of anything we can grow, which limits crop yields, which, as you can see, would have a negative impact on the proposed 'plant-based' alternatives for petroleum-based products.

Which leads me onto this — recent in-situ analyses of Martian soil suggest that water soluble phosphorus exists in higher concentrations than anywhere on Earth, with rich deposits near the surface, as well as deeper underground. Also, recent spectroscopic analyses of several near-Earth objects have suggested higher concentrations of phosphorus in C-type asteroids than previously believed.

Both of these things are much easier to get to than Titan, comparatively speaking. Also, given the greater urgency to find alternative phosphorus sources, you could probably convince more people to financially back martian or NEO colonization or exploitation efforts.

This would also make it easier to suggest to people 'hey guys, oil's getting a bit pricey, how about Titan? Transuranic elements are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 the atomic number of uranium. All of these elements are unstable and decay radioactively into other elements. Theoretically there exists an island of stability where certain transuranic elements are stable. But no such element has been discovered. In the real world these would be useful for creating compact nuclear weapons.

But in science fiction, such elements are popular with authors as MacGuffinite, and are given whatever magical properties the authors can imagine in their wildest dreams. Of course in the real world there is no reason to expect to find such elements occurring naturally. And if they did, it would make more sense to mine the radioactive stuff with robots, not people. So it wouldn't strictly be MacGuffinite.

An interesting twist on this is that claims might require a permanent human presence to be valid. This would provide an excuse for human crews in places that normally might not have them, such as mining outposts. This could lead to odd situations, like a major lunar colony having a web of small outposts solely for the purpose of maintaining title to the surrounding area. About this time somebody pops up with the standard talking point for MacGuffinite: Lunar helium-3 , the sine qua non of D- 3 He fusion.

Because of the low concentrations of helium-3 1. This was the background of the movie Moon. Problems include the unfortunate fact that we still have no idea how to build a break-even helium-3 burning fusion power plant, the very low concentrations of helium-3 in lunar regolith, and the fact that we can manufacture the stuff right here for a fraction of the cost of a lunar mining operation.

James Nicoll systematically enumerates the problems here. A minor point is that the manufacture of helium-3 produces radiation; and manufactured helium-3 is not a power source, it is an energy transport mechanism. It is only a power source if you actually mine it on the moon or other solar system body. And even if you manufacture it, you might want to move the production site into orbit along with other polluting industries.

Helium-3 can also be harvested from the atmospheres of gas giant planets. Jupiter is closest, but its massive gravity means a NERVA powered harvester would need an uneconomical mass ratio of 20 to escape.

Jean Remy observed that "However, in a good old Catch, I don't think we'll actually need helium-3 unless we have a strong space presence where fusion-powered ships are relatively common. Basically we will need to get helium-3 to support the infrastructure to get helium CitySide responded with "Not exactly without precedent. Consider coal mining's catalytic role in the development of the steam engine. What CitySide means is that back in the day, deep coal mines would unfortunately fill up with water.

You'd need the power of steam pumps to remove the water. Alas the steam pumps needed coal for fuel. Located adjacent to the historic Cherry Grove Pier!

Book online or call Ron Jon Surf Shop is all about having fun, riding waves, street skating, and spending time with family and freidns on the beach.

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