El Palacio Casa Tilly
The city is divided into 15 municipalities  — or boroughs , which are further subdivided into wards  consejos populares. The first echoes of the Art Deco movement in Havana started in , in the residential area of Miramar. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Italienische Reise , - List of twin towns and sister cities in the Caribbean. The present condition of many buildings in Havana has deteriorated since the Revolution.
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Havana expanded greatly in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island, mainly wood , combining various Iberian architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics. In , an often fatal epidemic of Yellow fever brought from Cartagena in Colombia affected a third of the European population of Havana.
By the middle of the 18th century Havana had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, and was the third-largest city in the Americas , ranking behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York.
The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years' War. The episode began on June 6, , when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11, men of the Royal Navy and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana.
Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War. The treaty gave Britain Florida in exchange for the return of the city of Havana on to Spain. After regaining the city, the Spanish transformed Havana into the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. On January 15, , the remains of Christopher Columbus were transported to the island from Santo Domingo.
They rested here until , when they were transferred to Seville's Cathedral , after Spain's loss of Cuba. As trade between Caribbean and North American states increased in the early 19th century, Havana became a flourishing and fashionable city. Havana's theaters featured the most distinguished actors of the age, and prosperity among the burgeoning middle-class led to expensive new classical mansions being erected. During this period Havana became known as the Paris of the Antilles.
With this, Cuba became the fifth country in the world to have a railroad, and the first Spanish -speaking country. Throughout the century, Havana was enriched by the construction of additional cultural facilities, such as the Tacon Teatre , one of the most luxurious in the world. After the Confederate States of America were defeated in the American Civil War in , many former slaveholders continued to run plantations by moving to Havana. In , the city walls were knocked down so that the metropolis could be enlarged.
At the end of the 19th century, Havana witnessed the final moments of Spanish colonialism in the Americas. The 20th century began with Cuba, and therefore Havana, under occupation by the United States. During the Republican Period, from to , the city saw a new era of development. Cuba recovered from the devastation of war to become a well-off country, with the third largest middle class in the hemisphere. Apartment buildings to accommodate the new middle class, as well as mansions for the Cuban tycoons, were built at a fast pace.
Numerous luxury hotels, casinos and nightclubs were constructed during the s to serve Havana's burgeoning tourist industry, which greatly benefited by the U. In the s, organized crime characters were not unaware of Havana's nightclub and casino life, and they made their inroads in the city. At the time, Havana became an exotic capital of appeal and numerous activities ranging from marinas, grand prix car racing, musical shows, and parks. It was also the favorite destination of sex tourists.
Havana achieved the title of being the Latin American city with the biggest middle class population per-capita, simultaneously accompanied by gambling and corruption where gangsters and stars were known to mix socially. During this era, Havana was generally producing more revenue than Las Vegas, Nevada , whose boom as a tourist destination began only after Havana's casinos closed in In , about , American tourists visited the city.
Nevertheless, after Castro's abrupt expropriation of all private property and industry May onwards under a strong communist model backed by the Soviet Union followed by the U. By —68, the Cuban government had nationalized all privately owned business entities in Cuba, down to "certain kinds of small retail forms of commerce" law No. A severe economic downturn occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Soviet subsidies ended, representing billions of dollars which the Soviet Union had given the Cuban government.
After many years of prohibition , the communist government increasingly turned to tourism for new financial revenue, and has allowed foreign investors to build new hotels and develop the hospitality industry. In Old Havana, effort has also gone into rebuilding for tourist purposes, and a number of streets and squares have been rehabilitated.
Havana Stock Exchange c. Museum of Fine Arts at the Palace of the Asturian c. Grand National Theatre at the Palace of the Galician c. The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbours: The low hills on which the city lies rise gently from the deep blue waters of the straits. Another notable rise is the hill to the west that is occupied by the University of Havana and the Prince's Castle.
Outside the city, higher hills rise on the west and east. Havana, like much of Cuba, has a tropical climate that is tempered by the island's position in the belt of the trade winds and by the warm offshore currents.
Hurricanes occasionally strike the island, but they ordinarily hit the south coast, [ citation needed ] and damage in Havana has been less than elsewhere in the country.
Old Havana , Vedado , and the newer suburban districts. To the west a newer section, centred on the uptown area known as Vedado , has become the rival of Old Havana for commercial activity and nightlife. The Capitolio Nacional building marks the beginning of Centro Habana, a working-class neighborhood that lies between Vedado and Old Havana. A third Havana is that of the more affluent residential and industrial districts that spread out mostly to the west.
Among these is Marianao , one of the newer parts of the city, dating mainly from the s. Some of the suburban exclusivity was lost after the revolution, many of the suburban homes having been nationalized by the Cuban government to serve as schools, hospitals, and government offices. Several private country clubs were converted to public recreational centres.
Miramar , located west of Vedado along the coast, remains Havana's exclusive area; mansions, foreign embassies, diplomatic residences, upscale shops, and facilities for wealthy foreigners are common in the area. In the s many parts of Old Havana , including the Plaza de Armas, became part of a projected year multimillion-dollar restoration project, for Cubans to appreciate their past and boost tourism.
In the past ten years, with the assistance of foreign aid and under the support of local city historian Eusebio Leal Spengler, large parts of Habana Vieja have been renovated. The city is moving forward with their renovations, with most of the major plazas Plaza Vieja, Plaza de la Catedral, Plaza de San Francisco and Plaza de Armas and major tourist streets Obispo and Mercaderes near completion.
The city is divided into 15 municipalities  — or boroughs , which are further subdivided into wards  consejos populares. Numbers refer to map. Due to Havana's almost five hundred-year existence , the city boasts some of the most diverse styles of architecture in the world, from castles built in the late 16th century to modernist present-day high-rises. The present condition of many buildings in Havana has deteriorated since the Revolution.
Neoclassism was introduced into the city in the s, at the time including Gas public lighting in and the railroad in In the second half of the 18th century, sugar and coffee production increased rapidly, which became essential in the development of Havana's most prominent architectural style.
Many wealthy Habaneros took their inspiration from the French; this can be seen within the interiors of upper class houses such as the Aldama Palace built in This is considered the most important neoclassical residential building in Cuba and typifies the design of many houses of this period with portales of neoclassical columns facing open spaces or courtyards.
In Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier , the head of urban planning in Paris moved to Havana for five years to collaborate with architects and landscape designers.
In the master planning of the city his aim was to create a harmonic balance between the classical built form and the tropical landscape. He embraced and connected the city's road networks while accentuating prominent landmarks. His influence has left a huge mark on Havana although many of his ideas were cut short by the great depression in During the first decades of the 20th century Havana expanded more rapidly than at any time during its history.
Great wealth prompted architectural styles to be influenced from abroad. The peak of Neoclassicism came with the construction of the Vedado district begun in This whole neighborhood is littered with set back well-proportioned buildings. Riches were brought from the colonialists into and through Havana as it was a key transshipment point between the new world and old world. As a result, Havana was the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Most examples of early architecture can be seen in military fortifications such as La Fortaleza de San Carlos de la Cabana — designed by Battista Antonelli and the Castillo del Morro — This sits at the entrance of Havana Bay and provides an insight into the supremacy and wealth at that time.
Old Havana was also protected by a defensive wall begun in but had already overgrown its boundaries when it was completed in , becoming the new neighbourhood of Centro Habana. The influence from different styles and cultures can be seen in Havana's colonial architecture, with a diverse range of Moorish architecture , Spanish , Italian , Greek and Roman.
The Havana cathedral — dominating the Plaza de la Catedral is the best example of Cuban Baroque. The first echoes of the Art Deco movement in Havana started in , in the residential area of Miramar. The year marked the beginning of the reaction against the Spanish Renaissance style architecture. Art Deco started in the lush and wealthy suburbs of Miramar , Marianao , and Vedado.
The city's eclectic architectural sights begins in Centro Habana. Many high-rise office buildings, and apartment complexes, along with some hotels built in the s dramatically altered the skyline. Modernism, therefore, transformed much of the city and is known its individual buildings of high quality rather than its larger key buildings.
Examples of the latter are Habana Libre , which before the revolution was the Havana Hilton Hotel and La Rampa movie theater This story complex was conceived and based on Corbusian ideas of a self-contained city within a city.
It contained apartments, garages, a school, a supermarket, and restaurant on the top floor. This was the tallest concrete structure in the world at the time using no steel frame and the ultimate symbol of luxury and excess.
The Havana Riviera Hotel designed by Irving Feldman , a twenty-one-story edifice, when it opened, the Riviera was the largest purpose-built casino-hotel in Cuba or anywhere in the world, outside Las Vegas the Havana Hilton surpassed its size a year later. Havana, by far the leading cultural centre of the country, offers a wide variety of features that range from museums, palaces, public squares, avenues, churches, fortresses including the largest fortified complex in the Americas dating from the 16th through 18th centuries , ballet and from art and musical festivals to exhibitions of technology.
The restoration of Old Havana offered a number of new attractions, including a museum to house relics of the Cuban revolution. The government placed special emphasis on cultural activities, many of which are free or involve only a minimal charge. It became a stopping point for the treasure laden Spanish Galleons on the crossing between the New World and the Old World. In the 17th century it was one of the main shipbuilding centers. The city was built in baroque and neoclassic style.
Many buildings have fallen in ruin but a number are being restored. The narrow streets of Old Havana contain many buildings, accounting for perhaps as many as one-third of the approximately 3, buildings found in Old Havana. Old Havana is the ancient city formed from the port, the official center and the Plaza de Armas.
Alejo Carpentier called Old Havana the place "de las columnas" of the columns. The Cuban government is taking many steps to preserve and to restore Old Havana, through the Office of the city historian, directed by Eusebio Leal. The beauty of Old Havana City attracts millions of tourists each year who enjoy its rich old culture and folk music.
In spring , the largest open-air art exhibition ever in Cuba took in front of the basilica on the Plaza San Francisco de Asis: Over eight weeks the United Buddy Bears visited Havana.
The main aim is to promote the idea of tolerance and mutual understanding between countries, cultures and religions and to communicate a vision of a future peaceful world. Barrio Chino was once Latin America's largest and most vibrant Chinese community,    incorporated into the city by the early part of the 20th century.
Hundreds of thousands of Chinese workers were brought in by Spanish settlers from Guangdong , Fujian , Hong Kong , and Macau via Manila , Philippines  starting in the midth century to replace or work alongside African slaves. The first Chinese-born arrived in Havana on June 3, The strip is a pedestrian-only street adorned with many red lanterns, dancing red paper dragons and other Chinese cultural designs, there is a great number of restaurants that serve a full spectrum of Chinese dishes — unfortunately that 'spectrum' is said by many [ who?
The district has two paifang , the larger one located on Calle Dragones. China donated the materials in the late s. The smaller arch is located on Zanja strip. The Cuban's Chinese boom ended when Fidel Castro's revolution seized private businesses, sending tens of thousands of business-minded Chinese fleeing, mainly to the United States.
Descendants are now making efforts to preserve and revive the culture. The museum houses one of the largest collections of paintings and sculpture from Latin America and is the largest in the Caribbean region.
The museum was the Presidential Palace in the capital; today, its displays and documents outline Cuba's history from the beginning of the neo-colonial period. Several museums in Old Havana houses furniture, silverware , pottery , glass and other items from the colonial period.
One of these is the Palacio de los Capitanes Generales , where Spanish governors once lived. The Casa de Africa presents another aspect of Cuba's history, it houses a large collection of Afro-Cuban religious artifacts. Havana's Museo del Automobil has an impressive collection of vehicles dating back to a Cadillac.
While most museums of Havana are situated in Old Havana, few of them can also be found in Vedado. There are also sculptural pieces by Giuseppe Moretti ,  representing allegories depicting benevolence, education, music and theatre. Other important theatres in the city includes the National Theater of Cuba , housed in a huge modern building located in Plaza de la Revolucion , decorated with works by Cuban artists.
The National Theater includes two main theatre stages, the Avellaneda Auditorium and the Covarrubias Auditorium , as well as a smaller theatre workshop space on the ninth floor. The Karl Marx Theater with its large auditorium have a seating capacity of 5, spectators, is generally used for concerts and other events, it is also one of the venues for the annual Havana Film Festival.
Ballet Nacional de Cuba performing at the Great Theatre. The city has long been a popular attraction for tourists. Between and , Havana hosted more tourists than any other location in the Caribbean.
A pamphlet published by E. With the deterioration of Cuba — United States relations and the imposition of the trade embargo on the island in , tourism dropped drastically and did not return to anything close to its pre-revolution levels until The revolutionary government in general, and Fidel Castro in particular, initially opposed any considerable development of the tourism industry, linking it to the debauchery and criminal activities of times past.
In the late s, however, Castro changed his stance and, in , the Cuban government passed a foreign investment code which opened a number of sectors, tourism included, to foreign capital.
Through the creation of firms open to such foreign investment such as Cubanacan , Cuba began to attract capital for hotel development, managing to increase the number of tourists from , in to , by the end of that decade.
Havana has also been a popular health tourism destination for more than 20 years. Foreign patients travel to Cuba, Havana in particular, for a wide range of treatments including eye-surgery , neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease , and orthopaedics. Many patients are from Latin America, although medical treatment for retinitis pigmentosa , often known as night blindness , has attracted many patients from Europe and North America.
Havana has a diversified economy, with traditional sectors, such as manufacturing, construction, transportation and communications, and new or revived ones such as biotechnology and tourism. The city's economy first developed on the basis of its location, which made it one of the early great trade centres in the New World.
Sugar and a flourishing slave trade first brought riches to the city, and later, after independence, it became a renowned resort.
Despite efforts by Fidel Castro's government to spread Cuba's industrial activity to all parts of the island, Havana remains the centre of much of the nation's industry. The traditional sugar industry, upon which the island's economy has been based for three centuries, is centred elsewhere on the island and controls some three-fourths of the export economy.
But light manufacturing facilities, meat-packing plants, and chemical and pharmaceutical operations are concentrated in Havana. Other food-processing industries are also important, along with shipbuilding, vehicle manufacturing, production of alcoholic beverages particularly rum , textiles, and tobacco products, particularly the world-famous Habanos cigars.
The port also supports a considerable fishing industry. Havana, on average, has the country's highest incomes and human development indicators. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba re-emphasized tourism as a major industry leading to its recovery. Tourism is now Havana and Cuba's primary economic source. Havana's economy is still in flux, despite Raul Castro's embrace of free enterprise in After the Revolution, Cuba's traditional capitalist free-enterprise system was replaced by a heavily socialized economic system.
In Havana, Cuban-owned businesses and U. In Old Havana and throughout Vedado there are several small private businesses, such as shoe-repair shops or dressmaking facilities.
Banking as well is also under state control, and the National Bank of Cuba , headquartered in Havana, is the control center of the Cuban economy. Its branches in some cases occupy buildings that were in pre-revolutionary times the offices of Cuban or foreign banks. In the late s Vedado, located along the atlantic waterfront, started to represent the principal commercial area.
It was developed extensively between and , when Havana developed as a major destination for U. Vedado is today Havana's financial district, the main banks, airline companies offices, shops, most businesses headquarters, numerous high-rise apartments and hotels, are located in the area. By the end of official Census, According to the official census the Cuban census and similar studies use the term "skin colour" instead of "race".
There are few mestizos in contrast to many other Latin American countries, because the Native Indian population was virtually wiped out by Eurasian diseases in colonial times. Havana agglomeration grew rapidly during the first half of the 20th century reaching 1 million inhabitants in the census. The con-urbanization expanded over the Havana municipality borders into neighbor municipalities of Marianao, Regla and Guanabacoa.
Starting from the s, the city's population is growing slowly as a result of balanced development policies, low birth rate, its relatively high rate of emigration abroad, and controlled domestic migration. Because of the city and country's low birth rate and high life expectancy,   its age structure is similar to a developed country, with Havana having an even higher proportion of elderly than the country as a whole.
There is a population of internal migrants to Havana nicknamed "palestinos" Palestinians ,  sometimes considered a racist term,  these mostly hail from the eastern region of Oriente.
The city's significant minority of Chinese , mostly Cantonese ancestors, were brought in the midth century by Spanish settlers via the Philippines with work contracts and after completing 8-year contracts many Chinese immigrants settled permanently in Havana.
There is a population of several thousand North African teen and pre-teen refugees. Roman Catholics form the largest religious group in Havana. Its patron saint is San Cristobal Saint Christopher , to whom the cathedral is devoted. It received papal visits from three successive supreme pontiffs: The Jewish community in Havana has reduced after the Revolution from once having embraced more than 15, Jews,  many of whom had fled Nazi persecution and subsequently left Cuba to Miami or moved to Israel after Castro took to power in The city once had five synagogues , but only three remain one Orthodox , and two Conservative: The years after the Soviet Union collapsed in , the city, and Cuba in general have suffered decades of economic deterioration.
The generic term " slum " is seldom used in Cuba, substandard housing is described: The National Housing Institute considers units in solares a large inner-city mansion or older hotel or boarding house subdivided into rooms, sometimes with over 60 families  and shanty towns to be the "precarious housing stock" and tracks their number.
Shanty towns are scattered throughout the city except for in a few central areas. Buildings in Old Havana and Centro Habana are especially exposed to the elements: The camellos operated on the busiest routes and were trailers transformed into buses known as camels, so called for their two humps. The Metrobus consists of 17 main lines, identified with the letter "P" with long-distance routes.
In the Cuban government invested millions of dollars for the acquisition of 1, new Yutong urban buses. The airport is Cuba's main international and domestic gateway, it connects Havana with the rest of the Caribbean , North , Central and South America , Europe and one destination in Africa. The city is also served by Playa Baracoa Airport which is small airport to the west of city used for some domestic flights, primarily Aerogaviota. Havana has a network of suburban , interurban and long-distance rail lines.
Gorlero Avenue, the main avenue of Punta del Este has commercial galleries, restaurants, cinemas, casinos, shops. Artigas square, over Gorlero Ave is the place where there is a popular handicraft market. The foundation was created in by international sculpture artist Pablo Atchugarry , with the aim to keep a dialogue between art and nature. During the summer season December to February the foundation proposes a series of exhibitions and events such as concerts of lyrical to popular music, ballet representations and more.
Once a year, the institution present an iconic exhibition from a major artist or collection. The premises of the institution are composed of the sculptor's workshop, a building with three exposition rooms, an auditorium, an open-air stage for a variety of shows, a restaurant, a didactic room where sculpture, painting, drawing and ceramic classes are held, and a last space which holds the permanent collection and the work of the founder.
A hectare sculpture park surrounds the compound. The lighthouse is 45 metres tall, and the crystal panels which are part of its illumination system were brought from France.
It works by electricity, with acetylene gas as emergency backup. It is possible to climb the steps of its spiral staircase. This island of 21 hectares of surface is daily visited to enjoy its two beaches: Garden Port and Honda beach.
It consists of a natural port, with ships anchoring close to it, and it also became a popular area to practice water sports. Curbelo International Airport , being the second most important of Uruguay, located near Laguna del Sauce on the outskirts of the city. This modern airport opened in It offers domestic and international flights within the region. The bus companies Copsa and Cot connect the airport with Punta del Este, and are there are several private taxi and remise services available.
Among several sports, particularly motorsports, is highlighted the Punta del Este ePrix , third round of the Formula E championship and opening date of the category in the Americas. The street circuit of 2. There is also the traditional Punta Del Este Sevens , a rugby competition that takes place in January since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
City in Maldonado, Uruguay. Archived from the original PDF on 23 March Retrieved 8 September Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 10 July Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 25 August Archived from the original on 7 September Intendencia Departamnetal de Maldonado. Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 11 September National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 8, Archived from the original on Tours at Punta del Este".
Faro de Punta del Este" in Spanish. Archived from the original on August 3, Retrieved September 10, Aeropuerto Internacional de Carrasco. Archived from the original on 25 November Retrieved 14 January Retrieved 31 March